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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  2. The recent development in transportation, such as energy-efficient and autonomous vehicles, defines a condition for the students in transportation engineering. Students in the field of transportation engineering should be ready upon their graduation with new knowledge and skills that are compatible with the need of the industry and sustainable engineering practices. During summers of2018 and 2019, we developed and implemented an eight-week program to increase the knowledge and skills of students coming from multidisciplinary fields related to autonomous vehicles. Problem of “How much will platooning reduce fuel consumption and emissions per vehicle mile traveled?” was instrumentalized in subsequent activities to introduce the comprehensive knowledge structure of autonomous vehicles. The engineering concept of reducing the cost and sustainability was embedded in the leading research question that helped us to develop and implement activities on an overall knowledge structure in autonomous vehicles. The goal of using problem-based learning activities was not to encourage the students to focus on reaching the solution merely. We aimed to introduce the multidisciplinary knowledge and critical skills aspects of learning about disruptive technologies. In this paper, we will discuss how a multidisciplinary research approach was incorporated into a problem-based learning activity. The students were introduced the subjectsmore »related to math, physics, computer science, and biology as the integration of the knowledge structure of autonomous vehicles. We will also present the results on students’ use of critical skills such as machine learning and computer programming.« less
  3. This paper describes the first phase of infusing undergraduate courses in science and engineering with problem-based learning about transportation disruptive technologies. The project represents a collaboration between Benedict College and the University of South Carolina on an NSF Targeted Infusion Project (TIP) funded through the Historically Black Colleges and Universities Undergraduate Program (HBCU-UP). The main project goal is to transform the approach for educating students pursuing STEM majors at a local HBCU. It is structured around an implementable set of pedagogical strategies in active learning with an emphasis on problem-based learning for in-the-classroom and outside-the-classroom (i.e. undergraduate research) environments. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of three problem-based modules in three different courses ranging from first-year introduction to engineering to senior-level software engineering. Modules are created using the Environments for Fostering Effective Critical Thinking (EFFECTs) instructional framework. The paper reveals the benefits and challenges of a new approach to teaching and learning based on instructor and student interviews.
  4. This research focuses on studying the scattering phenomenon. Scattering electromagnetic waves from a rotating conducting cylinder is investigated when the material of the conducting cylinder is linear, homogeneous, isotropic, and dispersive. This study is an extension of a previous work that investigated the effect of the rotating conducting cylinder on the scattered phase and amplitude, when the material of the conducting cylinder is linear, homogeneous, isotropic, and nondispersive. One of the important result of the previous work is that the Franklin transformation is a proper and more accurate method to calculate the effect of the rotation, and gives more accurate results than Galilean transformation. In this research, the Franklin transformation will be used to investigate the effect of the rotation of the object on the scattered phase and magnitude of the incident waves. The two types of incident waves (E-wave and H-wave) will be considered herein. The simulation results will clearly display the behavior of the scattered phase and magnitude with changes to the incident frequency, the speed of rotation, and the radius of the very good conducting cylinder. Moreover, this result is compared with the result of the previous work (non- dispersive material) to show the behavior of themore »scattered phase and magnitude when the incident frequency, speed of the rotation and radius of the very good conducting cylinder is changed.« less
  5. Many studies have reported associations between respiratory symptoms and resident proximity to traffic. However, only a few have documented information about the relationship between traffic volume and air quality in local areas. This study investigates the impact of traffic volume on air quality at different geographical locations in the state of South Carolina using multilevel linear mixed models and Grey Systems. Historical traffic volume and air quality data between 2006 and 2016 are obtained from the South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitoring stations. The data are used to develop prediction models that relate Air Quality Index (AQI) to traffic volume for selected counties and schools. For the counties, two models are developed, one with Ozone (O3) and one with PM2:5 as the dependent variable. For the schools, only one model is developed, with O3 as the dependent variable. The number of counties and schools studied are limited by the availability of air monitoring stations dedicated to measuring O3 and PM2:5. Several types of models were investigated. They include linear regression model (LM), linear mixed-effect regression model (LMER), Grey Systems (GM), error corrected GM (EGM), Grey Verhulst (GV), error corrected GV (EGV),more »and LMER + EGM. The LM model produced the least accurate estimate while the LMER + EGM model produced the most accurate estimate (average RMSE is less than 5%). The models’ estimates suggest that air quality in South Carolina will continue to get worse in the coming years due to increasing AADT. An interesting finding of this study is that some counties and schools will have higher levels of O3 or PM2:5 when AADT decreases. This finding suggests that there are other factors, other than AADT, that influence the air quality in these counties and schools.« less
  6. Connected vehicle (CV) systems are cognizant of potential cyber attacks because of increasing connectivity between its different components such as vehicles, roadside infrastructure and traffic management centers. However, it is a challenge to detect security threats in real-time and develop appropriate/effective countermeasures for a CV system because of the dynamic behavior of such attacks, high computational power requirement and a historical data requirement for training detection models. To address these challenges, statistical models, especially change point models, have potentials for real-time anomaly detections. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of two change point models, Expectation Maximization (EM) and two forms of Cumulative Summation (CUSUM) algorithms (i.e., typical and adaptive), for real-time V2I cyber attack detection in a CV Environment. To prove the efficacy of these models, we evaluated these two models for three different type of cyber attack, denial of service (DOS), impersonation, and false information, using basic safety messages (BSMs) generated from CVs through simulation. Results from numerical analysis revealed that EM, CUSUM, and adaptive CUSUM could detect these cyber attacks, DOS, impersonation, and false information, with an accuracy of (99\%, 100\%, 100\%), (98\%, 100\%, 100\%), and (100\%, 98\%, 100\%) respectively.