skip to main content

Title: Taking Compressive Sensing to the Hardware Level: Breaking Fundamental Radio-Frequency Hardware Performance Tradeoffs
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Page Range / eLocation ID:
81 to 100
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Functional hardware description languages (FHDL) provide powerful tools for building new abstractions that enable sophisticated hardware system to be constructed by composing small reusable parts. Raising the level of abstractions in hardware designs means the programmer can focus on high-level circuit structure rather than mundane low-level details. The language features that facilitate this include high-order functions, rich static type system with type inference, and parametric polymorphism. We use hand-written structural and behavioral VHDL, Simulink, and the Kansas Lava FHDL to re-implement several components taken from a Simulink model of an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) physical layer (PHY). Our development demonstrates that an FHDL can require fewer lines of code than traditional design languages without sacrificing performance. 
    more » « less
  2. This work presents the first hardware realisation of the Syndrome-Decodingin-the-Head (SDitH) signature scheme, which is a candidate in the NIST PQC process for standardising post-quantum secure digital signature schemes. SDitH’s hardness is based on conservative code-based assumptions, and it uses the Multi-Party-Computation-in-the-Head (MPCitH) construction. This is the first hardware design of a code-based signature scheme based on traditional decoding problems and only the second for MPCitH constructions, after Picnic. This work presents optimised designs to achieve the best area efficiency, which we evaluate using the Time-Area Product (TAP) metric. This work also proposes a novel hardware architecture by dividing the signature generation algorithm into two phases, namely offline and online phases for optimising the overall clock cycle count. The hardware designs for key generation, signature generation, and signature verification are parameterised for all SDitH parameters, including the NIST security levels, both syndrome decoding base fields (GF256 and GF251), and thus conforms to the SDitH specifications. The hardware design further supports secret share splitting, and the hypercube optimisation which can be applied in this and multiple other NIST PQC candidates. The results of this work result in a hardware design with a drastic reducing in clock cycles compared to the optimised AVX2 software implementation, in the range of 2-4x for most operations. Our key generation outperforms software drastically, giving a 11-17x reduction in runtime, despite the significantly faster clock speed. On Artix 7 FPGAs we can perform key generation in 55.1 Kcycles, signature generation in 6.7 Mcycles, and signature verification in 8.6 Mcycles for NIST L1 parameters, which increase for GF251, and for L3 and L5 parameters.

    more » « less
  3. The increasing complexity of System-on-Chip (SoC) designs and the rise of third-party vendors in the semiconductor industry have led to unprecedented security concerns. Traditional formal methods struggle to address software-exploited hardware bugs, and existing solutions for hardware-software co-verification often fall short. This paper presents Microscope, a novel framework for inferring software instruction patterns that can trigger hardware vulnerabilities in SoC designs. Microscope enhances the Structural Causal Model (SCM) with hardware features, creating a scalable Hardware Structural Causal Model (HW-SCM). A domain-specific language (DSL) in SMT-LIB represents the HW-SCM and predefined security properties, with incremental SMT solving deducing possible instructions. Microscope identifies causality to determine whether a hardware threat could result from any software events, providing a valuable resource for patching hardware bugs and generating test input. Extensive experimentation demonstrates Microscope's capability to infer the causality of a wide range of vulnerabilities and bugs located in SoC-level benchmarks. 
    more » « less
  4. One aspect of system security is evaluating a system’s vulnerability to Trojan attack. A hardware Trojan attack can have potentially devastating effects, especially given the increased reliance on integrated circuits within critical systems. A significant amount of research concerns attacks on digital systems, but attacks on AMS and RF systems have recently been of interest as well. A class of Trojans has been proposed that uses undesired alternate modes of operation in nonlinear systems as the Trojan payload. These Trojans are of particular interest because they do not cause deviations from the ideal system performance and cannot be detected until the Trojan is triggered. This work addresses this class of Trojans by listing different payloads, trigger mechanisms, and examples of system architectures vulnerable to attack. 
    more » « less