skip to main content

Title: Comparison of Interfacial and Continuum Models for Dynamic Fragmentation Analysis

The microstructural design has an essential effect on the fracture response of brittle materials. We present a stochastic bulk damage formulation to model dynamic brittle fracture. This model is compared with a similar interfacial model for homogeneous and heterogeneous materials. The damage models are rate-dependent, and the corresponding damage evolution includes delay effects. The delay effect provides mesh objectivity with much less computational efforts. A stochastic field is defined for material cohesion and fracture strength to involve microstructure effects in the proposed formulations. The statistical fields are constructed through the Karhunen-Loeve (KL) method. An advanced asynchronous Spacetime Discontinuous Galerkin (aSDG) method is used to discretize the final system of coupled equations. Application of the presented formulation is shown through dynamic fracture simulation of rock under a uniaxial compressive load. The final results show that a stochastic bulk damage model produces more realistic results in comparison with a homogenizes model.

Authors:
; ;
Award ID(s):
1725544 1725555
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10113632
Journal Name:
Proceedings of ASME 2018 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    This study presents the formulation, the numerical solution, and the validation of a theoretical framework based on the concept of variable-order mechanics and capable of modeling dynamic fracture in brittle and quasi-brittle solids. More specifically, the reformulation of the elastodynamic problem via variable and fractional-order operators enables a unique and extremely powerful approach to model nucleation and propagation of cracks in solids under dynamic loading. The resulting dynamic fracture formulation is fully evolutionary, hence enabling the analysis of complex crack patterns without requiring any a priori assumption on the damage location and the growth path, and without using any algorithm to numerically track the evolving crack surface. The evolutionary nature of the variable-order formalism also prevents the need for additional partial differential equations to predict the evolution of the damage field, hence suggesting a conspicuous reduction in complexity and computational cost. Remarkably, the variable-order formulation is naturally capable of capturing extremely detailed features characteristic of dynamic crack propagation such as crack surface roughening as well as single and multiple branching. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed variable-order formulation are validated by comparing the results of direct numerical simulations with experimental data of typical benchmark problems available in themore »literature.

    « less
  2. We present a stochastic bulk damage model for rock fracture. The decomposition of strain or stress tensor to its negative and positive parts is often used to drive damage and evaluate the effective stress tensor. However, they typically fail to correctly model rock fracture in compression. We propose a damage force model based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion and an effective stress relation that remedy this problem. An evolution equation specifies the rate at which damage tends to its quasi-static limit. The relaxation time of the model introduces an intrinsic length scale for dynamic fracture and addresses the mesh sensitivity problem of earlier damage models. The ordinary differential form of the damage equation makes this remedy quite simple and enables capturing the loading rate sensitivity of strain-stress response. The asynchronous Spacetime Discontinuous Galerkin (aSDG) method is used for macroscopic simulations. To study the effect of rock inhomogeneity, the Karhunen-Loeve method is used to realize random fields for rock cohesion. It is shown that inhomogeneity greatly differentiates fracture patterns from those of a homogeneous rock, including the location of zones with maximum damage. Moreover, as the correlation length of the random field decreases, fracture patterns resemble angled-cracks observed in compressive rockmore »fracture.« less
  3. Double-network gels are a class of tough soft materials comprising two elastic networks with contrasting structures. The formation of a large internal damage zone ahead of the crack tip by the rupturing of the brittle network accounts for the large crack resistance of the materials. Understanding what determines the damage zone is the central question of the fracture mechanics of double-network gels. In this work, we found that at the onset of crack propagation, the size of necking zone, in which the brittle network breaks into fragments and the stretchable network is highly stretched, distinctly decreases with the increase of the solvent viscosity, resulting in a reduction in the fracture toughness of the material. This is in sharp contrast to the tensile behavior of the material that does not change with the solvent viscosity. This result suggests that the dynamics of stretchable network strands, triggered by the rupture of the brittle network, plays a role. To account for this solvent viscosity effect on the crack initiation, a delayed blunting mechanism regarding the polymer dynamics effect is proposed. The discovery on the role of the polymer dynamic adds an important missing piece to the fracture mechanism of this unique material.
  4. Abstract

    Phenotypic diversity is influenced by physical laws that govern how an organism's morphology relates to functional performance. To study comparative organismal biology, we need to quantify this diversity using biological traits (definable aspects of the morphology, behavior, and/or life history of an organism). Traits are often assumed to be immutable properties that need to be measured only a single time in each adult. However, organisms often experience changes in their biotic and abiotic environments that can alter trait function. In particular, structural traits represent the physical capabilities of an organism and may be heavily influenced by the rate at which they are exposed to physical demands (“loads”). For instance, materials tend to become more brittle when loaded at faster rates which could negatively affect structures trying to resist those loads (e.g., brittle materials are more likely to fracture). In the following perspective piece, we address the dynamic properties of structural traits and present case studies that demonstrate how dynamic strain rates affect the function of these traits in diverse groups of organisms. First, we review how strain rate affects deformation and fracture in biomaterials and demonstrate how these effects alter puncture mechanics in systems such as snake strikes. Second,more »we discuss how different rates of bone loading affect the locomotor biomechanics of vertebrates and their ecology. Through these examinations of diverse taxa and ecological functions, we aim to highlight how rate-dependent properties of structural traits can generate dynamic form–function relationships in response to changing environmental conditions. Findings from these studies serve as a foundation to develop more nuanced ecomechanical models that can predict how complex traits emerge and, thereby, advance progress on outlining the Rules of Life.

    « less
  5. Realistic fracture simulations in rock as a heterogeneous brittle material with significant inherent randomness require the use of models that incorporate its inhomogeneities and statistical variability. The high dependence of their fracture progress on microstructural defects results in wide scatter in their ultimate strength and the so-called size effect. This paper proposes an approach based on statistical volume elements (SVEs) to characterize rock fracture strength at the mesoscale. The use of SVEs ensures that the material randomness is maintained upon averaging of microscale features. Because the fracture strength varies not just spatially, but also by the angle of loading, this work includes angular variability to properly model a heterogeneous rock domain. Two different microcrack distributions, one angularly uniform and one angularly biased towards a specific angle, are used to show that implementing angle into the random field provides the most realistic fracture simulation. An adaptive asynchronous spacetime discontinuous Galerkin (aSDG) finite element method is used to perform the dynamic fracture simulations.