Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00PM ET on Friday, December 15 until 2:00 AM ET on Saturday, December 16 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Asymptotic and Spectral Analysis of a Model of the Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with the Timoshenko Beam as a Substructure
Mathematical analysis of the well known model of a piezoelectric energy harvester is presented. The harvester is designed as a cantilever Timoshenko beam with piezoelectric layers attached to its top and bottom faces. Thin, perfectly conductive electrodes are covering the top and bottom faces of the piezoelectric layers. These electrodes are connected to a resistive load. The model is governed by a system of three partial differential equations. The first two of them are the equations of the Timoshenko beam model and the third one represents Kirchhoff’s law for the electric circuit. All equations are coupled due to the piezoelectric effect. We represent the system as a single operator evolution equation in the Hilbert state space of the system. The dynamics generator of this evolution equation is a non-selfadjoint matrix differential operator with compact resolvent. The paper has two main results. Both results are explicit asymptotic formulas for eigenvalues of this operator, i.e., the modal analysis for the electrically loaded system is performed. The first set of the asymptotic formulas has remainder terms of the order O ( 1 n ) , where n is the number of an eigenvalue. These formulas are derived for the model with variable physical parameters. The second set of the asymptotic formulas has remainder terms of the order O ( 1 n 2 ) , and is derived for a less general model with constant parameters. This second set of formulas contains extra term depending on the electromechanical parameters of the model. It is shown that the spectrum asymptotically splits into two disjoint subsets, which we call the α -branch eigenvalues and the θ -branch eigenvalues. These eigenvalues being multiplied by “i” produce the set of the vibrational modes of the system. The α -branch vibrational modes are asymptotically located on certain vertical line in the left half of the complex plane and the θ -branch is asymptotically close to the imaginary axis. By having such spectral and asymptotic results, one can derive the asymptotic representation for the mode shapes and for voltage output. Asymptotics of vibrational modes and mode shapes is instrumental in the analysis of control problems for the harvester.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
NSF-PAR ID:
10131142
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Applied Sciences
Volume:
8
Issue:
9
ISSN:
2076-3417
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1434
Format(s):
Medium: X
National Science Foundation
##### More Like this
1. Abstract

Asymptotic and spectral results on the initial boundary‐value problem for the coupled bending‐torsion vibration model (which is important in such areas of engineering sciences as bridge and tall building designs, aerospace and oil pipes modeling, etc.) are presented. The model is given by a system of two hyperbolic partial differential equations equipped with a three‐parameter family of non‐self‐adjoint (linear feedback type) boundary conditions modeling the actions of self‐straining actuators. The system is rewritten in the form of the first‐order evolution equation in a Hilbert space of a four‐component Cauchy data. It is shown that the dynamics generator is a matrix differential operator with compact resolvent, whose discrete spectrum splits asymptotically into two disjoint subsets called the α‐branch and the β‐branch, respectively. Precise spectral asymptotics for the eigenvalues from each branch as the number of an eigenvalue tends to ∞ have been derived. It is also shown that the leading asymptotical term of the α‐branch eigenvalue depends only on thetorsioncontrol parameter, while of the β‐branch eigenvalue depends on twobendingcontrol parameters.

more » « less
2. (Ed.)
The distribution of natural frequencies of the Euler–Bernoulli beam resting on elastic foundation and subject to an axial force in the presence of several damping mechanisms is investigated. The damping mechanisms are: ( i ) an external or viscous damping with damping coefficient ( − a 0 ( x )), ( ii ) a damping proportional to the bending rate with the damping coefficient a 1 ( x ). The beam is clamped at the left end and equipped with a four-parameter (α, β, κ 1 , κ 2 ) linear boundary feedback law at the right end. The 2 × 2 boundary feedback matrix relates the control input (a vector of velocity and its spacial derivative at the right end) to the output (a vector of shear and moment at the right end). The initial boundary value problem describing the dynamics of the beam has been reduced to the first order in time evolution equation in the state Hilbert space of the system. The dynamics generator has a purely discrete spectrum (the vibrational modes). Explicit asymptotic formula for the eigenvalues as the number of an eigenvalue tends to infinity have been obtained. It is shown that the boundary control parameters and the distributed damping play different roles in the asymptotical formulas for the eigenvalues of the dynamics generator. Namely, the damping coefficient a 1 and the boundary controls κ 1 and κ 2 enter the leading asymptotical term explicitly, while damping coefficient a 0 appears in the lower order terms.
more » « less
3. Abstract The distribution of natural frequencies of the Euler–Bernoulli beam subject to fully non-dissipative boundary conditions is investigated. The beam is clamped at the left end and equipped with a 4-parameter ($\alpha ,\beta ,k_1,k_2$) linear boundary feedback law at the right end. The $2 \times 2$ boundary feedback matrix relates the control input (a vector of velocity and its spatial derivative at the right end), to the output (a vector of shear and moment at the right end). The initial boundary value problem describing the dynamics of the beam has been reduced to the first order in time evolution equation in the state Hilbert space equipped with the energy norm. The dynamics generator has a purely discrete spectrum (the vibrational modes) denoted by $\{\nu _n\}_{n\in \mathbb {Z}^{\prime}}$. The role of the control parameters is examined and the following results have been proven: (i) when $\beta \neq 0$, the set of vibrational modes is asymptotically close to the vertical line on the complex $\nu$-plane given by the equation $\Re \nu = \alpha + (1-k_1k_2)/\beta$; (ii) when $\beta = 0$ and the parameter $K = (1-k_1 k_2)/(k_1+k_2)$ is such that $\left |K\right |\neq 1$ then the following relations are valid: $\Re (\nu _n/n) = O\left (1\right )$ and $\Im (\nu _n/n^2) = O\left (1\right )$ as $\left |n\right |\to \infty$; (iii) when $\beta =0$, $|K| = 1$, and $\alpha = 0$, then the following relations are valid: $\Re (\nu _n/n^2) = O\left (1\right )$ and $\Im (\nu _n/n) = O\left (1\right )$ as $\left |n\right |\to \infty$; (iv) when $\beta =0$, $|K| = 1$, and $\alpha>0$, then the following relations are valid: $\Re (\nu _n/\ln \left |n\right |) = O\left (1\right )$ and $\Im (\nu _n/n^2) = O\left (1\right )$ as $\left |n\right |\to \infty$.
more » « less
4. (Ed.)
Abstract This paper presents the theoretical modeling and multiple-scale analysis of a novel piezoelectric energy harvester composed of a metal cantilever beam, piezoelectric films, and an axial preload spring at the moveable end. The harvester experiences mono- and bi-stable regimes as the stiffness of preload spring increases. The governing equations are derived with two high-order coupling terms induced by the axial motion. The literature shows that these high-order coupling terms lead to tedious calculations in the stability analysis of solutions. This work introduces an analytical strategy and the implementation of the multiple-scale method for the harvester in either the mono- or bi-stable status. Numerical simulations are performed to verify the analytical solutions. The influence of the electrical resistance, excitation level, and the spring pre-deformation on the voltage outputs and dynamics are investigated. The spring pre-deformation has a slight influence on the energy harvesting performance of the mono-stable system, but a large effect on that of the bi-stable system.
more » « less
5. The classical Beardwood-Halton-Hammersly theorem (1959) asserts the existence of an asymptotic formula of the form $\beta \sqrt n$ for the minimum length of a Traveling Salesperson Tour throuh $n$ random points in the unit square, and in the decades since it was proved, the existence of such formulas has been shown for other such \emph{Euclidean functionals} on random points in the unit square as well. Despite more than 50 years of attention, however, it remained unknown whether the minimum length TSP through $n$ random points in $[0,1]^2$ was asymptotically distinct from its natural lower bounds, such as the minimum length spanning tree, the minimum length 2-factor, or, as raised by Goemans and Bertsimas, from its linear programming relaxation. We prove that the TSP on random points in Euclidean space is indeed asymptotically distinct from these and other natural lower bounds, and show that this separation implies that branch-and-bound algorithms based on these natural lower bounds must take nearly exponential ($e^{\tilde \Omega(n)}$) time to solve the TSP to optimality, even in average case. This is the first average-case superpolynomial lower bound for these branch-and-bound algorithms (a lower bound as strong as $e^{\tilde \Omega (n)}$ was not even been known in worst-case analysis).
more » « less