- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 1527 to 1528
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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We present an analysis of graphene-loaded transmission line switches for sub-millimeter wave and terahertz applications. As such, we propose equivalent circuit models for graphene-loaded coplanar waveguides and striplines and examine the switching performance under certain parameters. Specifically, we identify the optimum design of graphene switches based on transmission line characteristic impedance, scaling factor, graphene shape, and topology (series or shunt). These parameters are varied to obtain the insertion loss and ON/OFF ratio of each switch configuration. The extracted results act as the design roadmap toward an optimum switch topology and emphasize the limitations with respect to fabrication challenges, parasitic effects, and radiation losses that are especially pronounced in the millimeter wave/terahertz bands. This is the first time that such an in-depth analysis is carried out on graphene-loaded transmission line switches, enabling the development of efficient millimeter wave/terahertz tunable topologies in terms of insertion loss and ON/OFF ratio. Specifically, the optimized switches can be integrated with antennas or employed for the development of tunable phase shifters, leading to the implementation of efficient reconfigurable reflective surfaces (e.g., reflectarrays) or coded phased arrays either for imaging or wireless communication applications. In our models, we use measured graphene values (sheet impedance) instead of theoreticalmore »
Ferroelectric materials exhibit spontaneous polarization that can be switched by electric field. Beyond traditional applications as nonvolatile capacitive elements, the interplay between polarization and electronic transport in ferroelectric thin films has enabled a path to neuromorphic device applications involving resistive switching. A fundamental challenge, however, is that finite electronic conductivity may introduce considerable power dissipation and perhaps destabilize ferroelectricity itself. Here, tunable microwave frequency electronic response of domain walls injected into ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3) on the level of a single nanodomain is revealed. Tunable microwave response is detected through first‐order reversal curve spectroscopy combined with scanning microwave impedance microscopy measurements taken near 3 GHz. Contributions of film interfaces to the measured AC conduction through subtractive milling, where the film exhibited improved conduction properties after removal of surface layers, are investigated. Using statistical analysis and finite element modeling, we inferred that the mechanism of tunable microwave conductance is the variable area of the domain wall in the switching volume. These observations open the possibilities for ferroelectric memristors or volatile resistive switches, localized to several tens of nanometers and operating according to well‐defined dynamics under an applied field.
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