- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 4884 to 4895
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Despite its importance in electron transfer reactions and radiation chemistry, there has been disagreement over the fundamental nature of the hydrated electron, such as whether or not it resides in a cavity. Mixed quantum/classical simulations of the hydrated electron give different structures depending on the pseudopotential employed, and ab initio models of computational necessity use small numbers of water molecules and/or provide insufficient statistics to compare to experimental observables. A few years ago, Kumar et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 2015, 119, 9148) proposed a minimalist ab initio model of the hydrated electron with only a small number of explicitly treated water molecules plus a polarizable continuum model (PCM). They found that the optimized geometry had four waters arranged tetrahedrally around a central cavity, and that the calculated vertical detachment energy and radius of gyration agreed well with experiment, results that were largely independent of the level of theory employed. The model, however, is based on a fixed structure at 0 K and does not explicitly incorporate entropic contributions or the thermal fluctuations that should be associated with the room-temperature hydrated electron. Thus, in this paper, we extend the model of Kumar et al. by running Born−Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD)more »
Structural aspects of the topological model of the hydrogen bond in water on auto-dissociation via proton transferMolecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to investigate the structure and lifetimes of hydrogen bonds and auto dissociation via proton transfer in bulk water using a reactive and dissociative all-atom potential that has previously been shown to match a variety of water properties and proton transfer. Using the topological model, each molecule's donated and accepted hydrogen bonds were labeled relative to the other hydrogen bonds on neighboring waters, providing a description of the effect of these details on the structure, dynamics and autoionization of water molecules. In agreement with prior data, asymmetric bonding at the sub-100 femtosecond timescale is observed, as well as the existence of linear, bifurcated, and dangling hydrogen bonds. The lifetime of the H-bond, 2.1 ps, is consistent with experimental data, with short time librations on the order of femtoseconds. The angular correlation functions, the presence of a second shell water entering the first shell, and OH vibrational stretch frequencies were all consistent with experiment or ab initio calculations. The simulations show short-lived (femtoseconds) dissociation of a small fraction of water molecules followed by rapid recombination. The role of the other H-bonds to the acceptor and on the donor plays an important part in proton transfer betweenmore »
31 P spin–lattice and singlet order relaxation mechanisms in pyrophosphate studied by isotopic substitution, field shuttling NMR, and molecular dynamics simulationNuclear spin relaxation mechanisms are often difficult to isolate and identify, especially in molecules with internal flexibility. Here we combine experimental work with computation in order to determine the major mechanisms responsible for 31 P spin–lattice and singlet order (SO) relaxation in pyrophosphate, a physiologically relevant molecule. Using field-shuttling relaxation measurements (from 2 μT to 9.4 T) and rates calculated from molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories, we identified chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) and spin–rotation as the major mechanisms, with minor contributions from intra- and intermolecular coupling. The significant spin–rotation interaction is a consequence of the relatively rapid rotation of the –PO 3 2− entities around the bridging P–O bonds, and is treated by a combination of MD simulations and quantum chemistry calculations. Spin–lattice relaxation was predicted well without adjustable parameters, and for SO relaxation one parameter was extracted from the comparison between experiment and computation (a correlation coefficient between the rotational motion of the groups).
Absorption spectra of benzoic acid in water at different pH and in the presence of salts: insights from the integration of experimental data and theoretical cluster modelsThe absorption spectra of molecular organic chromophores in aqueous media are of considerable importance in environmental chemistry. In this work, the UV-vis spectra of benzoic acid (BA), the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid, in aqueous solutions at varying pH and in the presence of salts are measured experimentally. The solutions of different pH provide insights into the contributions from both the non-dissociated acid molecule and the deprotonated anionic species. The microscopic interpretation of these spectra is then provided by quantum chemical calculations for small cluster models of benzoic species (benzoic acid and benzoate anion) with water molecules. Calculations of the UV-vis absorbance spectra are then carried out for different clusters such as C 6 H 5 COOH·(H 2 O) n and C 6 H 5 COO − ·(H 2 O) n , where n = 0–8. The following main conclusions from these calculations and the comparison to experimental results can be made: (i) the small water cluster yields good quantitative agreement with observed solution experiments; (ii) the main peak position is found to be very similar at different levels of theory and is in excellent agreement with the experimental value, however, a weaker feature about 1 eV to lower energy (redmore »
Hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) can be interpreted as a classical electrostatic interaction or as a covalent chemical bond if the interaction is strong enough. As a result, short strong H-bonds exist at an intersection between qualitatively different bonding descriptions, with few experimental methods to understand this dichotomy. The [F-H-F]−ion represents a bare short H-bond, whose distinctive vibrational potential in water is revealed with femtosecond two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. It shows the superharmonic behavior of the proton motion, which is strongly coupled to the donor-acceptor stretching and disappears on H-bond bending. In combination with high-level quantum-chemical calculations, we demonstrate a distinct crossover in spectroscopic properties from conventional to short strong H-bonds, which identify where hydrogen bonding ends and chemical bonding begins.