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Title: Chip-based self-referencing using integrated lithium niobate waveguides

The measurement and stabilization of the carrier–envelope offset frequencyfCEOvia self-referencing is paramount for optical frequency comb generation, which has revolutionized precision frequency metrology, spectroscopy, and optical clocks. Over the past decade, the development of chip-scale platforms has enabled compact integrated waveguides for supercontinuum generation. However, there is a critical need for an on-chip self-referencing system that is adaptive to different pump wavelengths, requires low pulse energy, and does not require complicated processing. Here, we demonstrate efficientfCEOstabilization of a modelocked laser with only 107 pJ of pulse energy via self-referencing in an integrated lithium niobate waveguide. We realize anf-2finterferometer through second-harmonic generation and subsequent supercontinuum generation in a single dispersion-engineered waveguide with a stabilization performance equivalent to a conventional off-chip module. ThefCEObeatnote is measured over a pump wavelength range of 70 nm. We theoretically investigate our system using a single nonlinear envelope equation with contributions from both second- and third-order nonlinearities. Our modeling reveals rich ultrabroadband nonlinear dynamics and confirms that the initial second-harmonic generation followed by supercontinuum generation with the remaining pump is responsible for the generation of more » a strongfCEOsignal as compared to a traditionalf-2finterferometer. Our technology provides a highly simplified system that is robust, low in cost, and adaptable for precision metrology for use outside a research laboratory.

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Article No. 702
Optical Society of America
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National Science Foundation
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