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Computing β-Stretch Paths in Drawings of Graphs
Let f be a drawing in the Euclidean plane of a graph G, which is understood to be a 1-dimensional simplicial complex. We assume that every edge of G is drawn by f as a curve of constant algebraic complexity, and the ratio of the length of the longest simple path to the the length of the shortest edge is poly(n). In the drawing f, a path P of G, or its image in the drawing π = f(P), is β-stretch if π is a simple (non-self-intersecting) curve, and for every pair of distinct points p ∈ P and q ∈ P , the length of the sub-curve of π connecting f(p) with f(q) is at most β∥f(p) − f(q)∥, where ∥.∥ denotes the Euclidean distance. We introduce and study the β-stretch Path Problem (βSP for short), in which we are given a pair of vertices s and t of G, and we are to decide whether in the given drawing of G there exists a β-stretch path P connecting s and t. We also output P if it exists. The βSP quantifies a notion of “near straightness” for paths in a graph G, motivated by gerrymandering regions in a map, where edges of G represent natural geographical/political boundaries that may be chosen to bound election districts. The notion of a β-stretch path naturally extends to cycles, and the extension gives a measure of how gerrymandered a district is. Furthermore, we show that the extension is closely related to several studied measures of local fatness of geometric shapes. We prove that βSP is strongly NP-complete. We complement this result by giving a quasi-polynomial time algorithm, that for a given ε > 0, β ∈ O(poly(log |V (G)|)), and s, t ∈ V (G), outputs a β-stretch path between s and t, if a (1 − ε)β-stretch path between s and t exists in the drawing.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
NSF-PAR ID:
10179493
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Journal Name:
17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT)
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Medium: X
5. Abstract For every integer k there exists a bound $$B=B(k)$$ B = B ( k ) such that if the characteristic polynomial of $$g\in \textrm{SL}_n(q)$$ g ∈ SL n ( q ) is the product of $$\le k$$ ≤ k pairwise distinct monic irreducible polynomials over $$\mathbb {F}_q$$ F q , then every element x of $$\textrm{SL}_n(q)$$ SL n ( q ) of support at least B is the product of two conjugates of g . We prove this and analogous results for the other classical groups over finite fields; in the orthogonal and symplectic cases, the result is slightly weaker. With finitely many exceptions ( p ,  q ), in the special case that $$n=p$$ n = p is prime, if g has order $$\frac{q^p-1}{q-1}$$ q p - 1 q - 1 , then every non-scalar element $$x \in \textrm{SL}_p(q)$$ x ∈ SL p ( q ) is the product of two conjugates of g . The proofs use the Frobenius formula together with upper bounds for values of unipotent and quadratic unipotent characters in finite classical groups.