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Learning the low-dimensional representations of graphs (i.e., network embedding) plays a critical role in network analysis and facilitates many downstream tasks. Recently graph convolutional networks (GCNs) have revolutionized the field of network embedding, and led to state-of-the-art performance in network analysis tasks such as link prediction and node classification. Nevertheless, most of the existing GCN-based network embedding methods are proposed for unsigned networks. However, in the real world, some of the networks are signed, where the links are annotated with different polarities, e.g., positive vs. negative. Since negative links may have different properties from the positive ones and can also significantly affect the quality of network embedding. Thus in this paper, we propose a novel network embedding framework SNEA to learn Signed Network Embedding via graph Attention. In particular, we propose a masked self-attentional layer, which leverages self-attention mechanism to estimate the importance coefficient for pair of nodes connected by different type of links during the embedding aggregation process. Then SNEA utilizes the masked self-attentional layers to aggregate more important information from neighboring nodes to generate the node embeddings based on balance theory. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework through signed link prediction task on several real-worldmore »
Network representation learning (NRL) is crucial in the area of graph learning. Recently, graph autoencoders and its variants have gained much attention and popularity among various types of node embedding approaches. Most existing graph autoencoder-based methods aim to minimize the reconstruction errors of the input network while not explicitly considering the semantic relatedness between nodes. In this paper, we propose a novel network embedding method which models the consistency across different views of networks. More specifically, we create a second view from the input network which captures the relation between nodes based on node content and enforce the latent representations from the two views to be consistent by incorporating a multiview adversarial regularization module. The experimental studies on benchmark datasets prove the effectiveness of this method, and demonstrate that our method compares favorably with the state-of-the-art algorithms on challenging tasks such as link prediction and node clustering. We also evaluate our method on a real-world application, i.e., 30-day unplanned ICU readmission prediction, and achieve promising results compared with several baseline methods.
NeoDTI: neural integration of neighbor information from a heterogeneous network for discovering new drug–target interactions
Accurately predicting drug–target interactions (DTIs) in silico can guide the drug discovery process and thus facilitate drug development. Computational approaches for DTI prediction that adopt the systems biology perspective generally exploit the rationale that the properties of drugs and targets can be characterized by their functional roles in biological networks.
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Availability and implementation
The source code and datamore »
Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Predicting ncRNA–protein interactions based on dual graph convolutional network and pairwise learning
Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have recently attracted considerable attention due to their key roles in biology. The ncRNA–proteins interaction (NPI) is often explored to reveal some biological activities that ncRNA may affect, such as biological traits, diseases, etc. Traditional experimental methods can accomplish this work but are often labor-intensive and expensive. Machine learning and deep learning methods have achieved great success by exploiting sufficient sequence or structure information. Graph Neural Network (GNN)-based methods consider the topology in ncRNA–protein graphs and perform well on tasks like NPI prediction. Based on GNN, some pairwise constraint methods have been developed to apply on homogeneous networks, but not used for NPI prediction on heterogeneous networks. In this paper, we construct a pairwise constrained NPI predictor based on dual Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) called NPI-DGCN. To our knowledge, our method is the first to train a heterogeneous graph-based model using a pairwise learning strategy. Instead of binary classification, we use a rank layer to calculate the score of an ncRNA–protein pair. Moreover, our model is the first to predict NPIs on the ncRNA–protein bipartite graph rather than the homogeneous graph. We transform the original ncRNA–protein bipartite graph into two homogenous graphs on which to exploremore »
Networks have been widely used to represent the relations between objects such as academic networks and social networks, and learning embedding for networks has thus garnered plenty of research attention. Self-supervised network representation learning aims at extracting node embedding without external supervision. Recently, maximizing the mutual information between the local node embedding and the global summary (e.g. Deep Graph Infomax, or DGI for short) has shown promising results on many downstream tasks such as node classification. However, there are two major limitations of DGI. Firstly, DGI merely considers the extrinsic supervision signal (i.e., the mutual information between node embedding and global summary) while ignores the intrinsic signal (i.e., the mutual dependence between node embedding and node attributes). Secondly, nodes in a real-world network are usually connected by multiple edges with different relations, while DGI does not fully explore the various relations among nodes. To address the above-mentioned problems, we propose a novel framework, called High-order Deep Multiplex Infomax (HDMI), for learning node embedding on multiplex networks in a self-supervised way. To be more specific, we first design a joint supervision signal containing both extrinsic and intrinsic mutual information by high-order mutual information, and we propose a High- order Deep Infomaxmore »