 Award ID(s):
 1917383
 Publication Date:
 NSFPAR ID:
 10189442
 Journal Name:
 nternational Conference on Reversible Computation (RC), Springer LNCS
 Volume:
 11497
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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A basic question in the theory of faulttolerant quantum computation is to understand the fundamental resource costs for performing a universal logical set of gates on encoded qubits to arbitrary accuracy. Here we consider qubits encoded with constant space overhead (i.e. finite encoding rate) in the limit of arbitrarily large code distance d through the use of topological codes associated to triangulations of hyperbolic surfaces. We introduce explicit protocols to demonstrate how Dehn twists of the hyperbolic surface can be implemented on the code through constant depth unitary circuits, without increasing the space overhead. The circuit for a given Dehn twist consists of a permutation of physical qubits, followed by a constant depth local unitary circuit, where locality here is defined with respect to a hyperbolic metric that defines the code. Applying our results to the hyperbolic Fibonacci TuraevViro code implies the possibility of applying universal logical gate sets on encoded qubits through constant depth unitary circuits and with constant space overhead. Our circuits are inherently protected from errors as they map local operators to local operators while changing the size of their support by at most a constant factor; in the presence of noisy syndrome measurements, our results suggestmore »

Abstract The road to computing on quantum devices has been accelerated by the promises that come from using Shor’s algorithm to reduce the complexity of prime factorization. However, this promise hast not yet been realized due to noisy qubits and lack of robust error correction schemes. Here we explore a promising, alternative method for prime factorization that uses wellestablished techniques from variational imaginary time evolution. We create a Hamiltonian whose ground state encodes the solution to the problem and use variational techniques to evolve a state iteratively towards these prime factors. We show that the number of circuits evaluated in each iteration scales as
, where$$O(n^{5}d)$$ $O\left({n}^{5}d\right)$n is the bitlength of the number to be factorized andd is the depth of the circuit. We use a single layer of entangling gates to factorize 36 numbers represented using 7, 8, and 9qubit Hamiltonians. We also verify the method’s performance by implementing it on the IBMQ Lima hardware to factorize 55, 65, 77 and 91 which are greater than the largest number (21) to have been factorized on IBMQ hardware. 
Abstract We prove that
depth local random quantum circuits with two qudit nearestneighbor gates on a$${{\,\textrm{poly}\,}}(t) \cdot n^{1/D}$$ $\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{poly}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\left(t\right)\xb7{n}^{1/D}$D dimensional lattice withn qudits are approximatet designs in various measures. These include the “monomial” measure, meaning that the monomials of a random circuit from this family have expectation close to the value that would result from the Haar measure. Previously, the best bound was due to Brandão–Harrow–Horodecki (Commun Math Phys 346(2):397–434, 2016) for$${{\,\textrm{poly}\,}}(t)\cdot n$$ $\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{poly}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\left(t\right)\xb7n$ . We also improve the “scrambling” and “decoupling” bounds for spatially local random circuits due to Brown and Fawzi (Scrambling speed of random quantum circuits, 2012). One consequence of our result is that assuming the polynomial hierarchy ($$D=1$$ $D=1$ ) is infinite and that certain counting problems are$${{\,\mathrm{\textsf{PH}}\,}}$$ $\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\mathrm{PH}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}$ hard “on average”, sampling within total variation distance from these circuits is hard for classical computers. Previously, exact sampling from the outputs of even constantdepth quantum circuits was known to be hard for classical computers under these assumptions. However the standard strategy for extending this hardness result to approximate sampling requires the quantum circuits to have a property called “anticoncentration”, meaning roughly that the output has nearmaximal entropy. Unitary 2designs have the desired anticoncentration property. Our result improves the required depth for this level of anticoncentration from linear depthmore »$$\#{\textsf{P}}$$ $\#P$ 
Quantum computational supremacy arguments, which describe a way for a quantum computer to perform a task that cannot also be done by a classical computer, typically require some sort of computational assumption related to the limitations of classical computation. One common assumption is that the polynomial hierarchy ( P H ) does not collapse, a stronger version of the statement that P ≠ N P , which leads to the conclusion that any classical simulation of certain families of quantum circuits requires time scaling worse than any polynomial in the size of the circuits. However, the asymptotic nature of this conclusion prevents us from calculating exactly how many qubits these quantum circuits must have for their classical simulation to be intractable on modern classical supercomputers. We refine these quantum computational supremacy arguments and perform such a calculation by imposing finegrained versions of the noncollapse conjecture. Our first two conjectures poly3NSETH( a ) and perintNSETH( b ) take specific classical counting problems related to the number of zeros of a degree3 polynomial in n variables over F 2 or the permanent of an n × n integervalued matrix, and assert that any nondeterministic algorithm that solves them requires 2 c nmore »

Quantum computing is a new and rapidly evolving paradigm for solving chemistry problems. In previous work, we developed the Quantum Annealer Eigensolver (QAE) and applied it to the calculation of the vibrational spectrum of a molecule on the DWave quantum annealer. However, the original QAE methodology was applicable to real symmetric matrices only. For many physics and chemistry problems, the diagonalization of complex matrices is required. For example, the calculation of quantum scattering resonances can be formulated as a complex eigenvalue problem where the real part of the eigenvalue is the resonance energy and the imaginary part is proportional to the resonance width. In the present work, we generalize the QAE to treat complex matrices: first complex Hermitian matrices and then complex symmetric matrices. These generalizations are then used to compute a quantum scattering resonance state in a 1D model potential for O + O collisions. These calculations are performed using both a software (classical) annealer and hardware annealer (the DWave 2000Q). The results of the complex QAE are also benchmarked against a standard linear algebra library (LAPACK). This work presents the first numerical solution of a complex eigenvalue problem of any kind on a quantum annealer, and it ismore »