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Title: J-dimer emission in interwoven metal–organic frameworks
J-dimer emission is an emergent property that occurs when pairs of ground state fluorophores associate, typically in a dilute solution medium. The resulting fluorescence is shifted with respect to the monomer. J-dimer emission, however, has never been observed in concentrated dispersions or in the solid state. We posited that multivariate (MTV) MOFs with double interwoven structures would help to isolate these dimers within their crystalline matrix. Using this strategy, J-aggregate density was controlled during crystallization by following a substitutional solid solution approach. Here, we identified the presence of J-dimers over the entire composition range for interwoven PIZOF-2 / NNU-28 structures with variable amounts of a diethynyl-anthracene aggregate-forming link. We produced bulk crystals that systematically shifted their fluorescence from green to red with lifetimes (up to 13 ns) and quantum yields (up to 76%) characteristic of π–π stacked aggregates. Photophysical studies also revealed an equilibrium constant of dimerization, K D = 1.5 ± 0.3 M −1 , enabling the first thermodynamic quantification of link–link interactions that occur during MOF assembly. Our findings elucidate the role that supramolecular effects play during crystallization of MTV MOFs, opening pathways for the preparation of solid-state materials with solution-like properties by design.
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Chemical Science
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4391 to 4396
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National Science Foundation
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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018).« less