skip to main content

Title: J-dimer emission in interwoven metal–organic frameworks
J-dimer emission is an emergent property that occurs when pairs of ground state fluorophores associate, typically in a dilute solution medium. The resulting fluorescence is shifted with respect to the monomer. J-dimer emission, however, has never been observed in concentrated dispersions or in the solid state. We posited that multivariate (MTV) MOFs with double interwoven structures would help to isolate these dimers within their crystalline matrix. Using this strategy, J-aggregate density was controlled during crystallization by following a substitutional solid solution approach. Here, we identified the presence of J-dimers over the entire composition range for interwoven PIZOF-2 / NNU-28 structures with variable amounts of a diethynyl-anthracene aggregate-forming link. We produced bulk crystals that systematically shifted their fluorescence from green to red with lifetimes (up to 13 ns) and quantum yields (up to 76%) characteristic of π–π stacked aggregates. Photophysical studies also revealed an equilibrium constant of dimerization, K D = 1.5 ± 0.3 M −1 , enabling the first thermodynamic quantification of link–link interactions that occur during MOF assembly. Our findings elucidate the role that supramolecular effects play during crystallization of MTV MOFs, opening pathways for the preparation of solid-state materials with solution-like properties by design.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Chemical Science
Page Range / eLocation ID:
4391 to 4396
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Difluoroboron β-diketonate (BF 2 bdk) compounds show environment-sensitive optical properties in solution, aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and multi-stimuli responsive fluorescence switching in the solid state. Here, a series of 4-azepane-substituted β-diketone (bdk) ligands ( L-H , L-OMe , L-Br ) and their corresponding difluoroboron dyes ( D-H , D-OMe , D-Br ) were synthesized, and various responsive fluorescence properties of the compounds were studied, including solvatochromism, viscochromism, AIE, mechanochromic luminescence (ML) and halochromism. Compared to the β-diketones, the boron complexes exhibited higher extinction coefficients but lower quantum yields, and red-shifted absorption and emission in CH 2 Cl 2 . Computational studies showed that intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) dominated rather than π–π* transitions in all the compounds regardless of boron coordination. In solution, all the bdk ligands and boron dyes showed red-shifted emission in more polar solvents and increased fluorescence intensity in more viscous media. Upon aggregation, the emission of the β-diketones was quenched, however, the boronated dyes showed increased emission, indicative of AIE. Solid-state emission properties, ML and halochromism, were investigated on spin cast films. For ML, smearing caused a bathochromic emission shift for L-Br , and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the “as spun” and thermally annealed states were more crystalline and the smeared state was amorphous. No obvious ML emission shift was observed for L-H or L-OMe , and the boronated dyes were not mechano-active. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and triethylamine (TEA) vapors were used to study halochromism. Large hypsochromic emission shifts were observed for all the compounds after exposure to TFA vapor, and reversible fluorescence switching was achieved using the acid/base pair. 
    more » « less
  2. UV-irradiation of assembled urea-tethered triphenylamine dimers results in the formation of persistent radicals, whereas radicals generated in solution are reactive and quickly degrade. In the solid-state, high quantities of radicals (approximately 1 in 150 molecules) are formed with a half-life of one week with no significant change in the single crystal X-ray diffraction. Remarkably, after decay, re-irradiation of the solid sample regenerates the radicals to their original concentration. The photophysics upon radical generation are also altered. Both the absorption and emission are significantly quenched without external oxidation likely due to the delocalization of the radicals within the crystals. The factors that influence radical stability and generation are correlated to the rigid supramolecular framework formed by the urea tether of the triphenylamine dimer. Electrochemical evidence demonstrates that these compounds can be oxidized in solution at 1.0 V vs. SCE to generate radical cations, whose EPR spectra were compared with spectra of the solid-state photogenerated radicals. Additionally, these compounds display changes in emission due to solvent effects from fluorescence to phosphorescence. Understanding how solid-state assembly alters the photophysical properties of triphenylamines could lead to further applications of these compounds for magnetic and conductive materials. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Tuning structures of solution‐state aggregation and aggregation‐mediated assembly pathways of conjugated polymers is crucial for optimizing their solid‐state morphology and charge‐transport property. However, it remains challenging to unravel and control the exact structures of solution aggregates, let alone to modulate assembly pathways in a controlled fashion. Herein, aggregate structures of an isoindigo–bithiophene‐based polymer (PII‐2T) are modulated by tuning selectivity of the solvent toward the side chain versus the backbone, which leads to three distinct assembly pathways: direct crystallization from side‐chain‐associated amorphous aggregates, chiral liquid crystal (LC)‐mediated assembly from semicrystalline aggregates with side‐chain and backbone stacking, and random agglomeration from backbone‐stacked semicrystalline aggregates. Importantly, it is demonstrated that the amorphous solution aggregates, compared with semicrystalline ones, lead to significantly improved alignment and reduced paracrystalline disorder in the solid state due to direct crystallization during the meniscus‐guided coating process. Alignment quantified by the dichroic ratio is enhanced by up to 14‐fold, and the charge‐carrier mobility increases by a maximum of 20‐fold in films printed from amorphous aggregates compared to those from semicrystalline aggregates. This work shows that by tuning the precise structure of solution aggregates, the assembly pathways and the resulting thin‐film morphology and device properties can be drastically tuned.

    more » « less
  4. An attractive strategy to improve the energy transfer properties of synthetic dye networks is to optimize the excitonic coupling between the dyes to increase energy transfer rates. To explore this possibility, we investigate the use of J-like cyanine dye dimers (Cy3 and Cy5 dimers) on DNA duplexes as energy transfer relays in molecular photonic wires. This approach is based on using the collective emission dipole of a J-dimer to enhance the FRET rate between the dimer relay and a remote acceptor dye. Experimentally, we find that in room temperature aqueous buffer conditions the dimer relay provided no benefit in energy transfer quantum yield relative to a simple monomer relay. Further investigation led us to determine that enhanced non-radiative relaxation, non-ideal dye orientation within the dimer, and unfavorable dye orientation between the dimer and the acceptor dye limit energy transfer through the dimer relay. We hypothesized that non-radiative relaxation was the largest factor, and demonstrated this by placing the sample in a viscous solvent or cooling the sample, which dramatically improved energy transfer through the J-like dimer relay. Similar to how the formation of DNA-templated J-like dimers has improved, the practical use of J-like dimers to optimize energy transfer quantum efficiency will require improvements in the ability to control orientation between dyes to reach its full potential. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) constructed with M0nodes are attractive targets due to the reactivity of these low‐valent metals, but examples of these MOFs remain exceedingly rare. The rational design of three‐dimensional MOFs with Pd0and Pt0nodes using tetratopic phosphine ligands is reported. Five new MOFs have been synthesized by systematic variation of the phosphine ligands and metal precursors employed, and these represent the first examples of MOFs constructed using phosphine–metal bonds as the sole structural component. The MOFs display solid‐state luminescence, with emission maxima that are significantly red‐shifted compared to Pd(PPh3)4. In addition, a RhIlow‐valent coordination solid based on the same linker design is reported, which displays solid‐state luminescence that is not observed for the molecular analogue.

    more » « less