skip to main content

Title: Entangled quantum cellular automata, physical complexity, and Goldilocks rules
Cellular automata are interacting classical bits that display diverse behaviors, from fractals to random-number generators to Turing-complete computation. We introduce entangled quantum cellular automata subject to Goldilocks rules, tradeoffs of the kind underpinning biological, social, and economic complexity. Tweaking digital and analog quantum-computing protocols generates persistent entropy fluctuations; robust dynamical features, including an entangled breather; and network structure and dynamics consistent with complexity. Present-day quantum platforms---Rydberg arrays, trapped ions, and superconducting qubits---can implement Goldilocks protocols, which generate quantum many-body states with rich entanglement and structure. Moreover, the complexity studies reported here underscore an emerging idea in many-body quantum physics: some systems fall outside the integrable/chaotic dichotomy.
Authors:
Award ID(s):
1839232
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10197517
Journal Name:
ArXivorg
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
2005.01763
ISSN:
2331-8422
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract Quantum cellular automata (QCA) evolve qubits in a quantum circuit depending only on the states of their neighborhoods and model how rich physical complexity can emerge from a simple set of underlying dynamical rules. The inability of classical computers to simulate large quantum systems hinders the elucidation of quantum cellular automata, but quantum computers offer an ideal simulation platform. Here, we experimentally realize QCA on a digital quantum processor, simulating a one-dimensional Goldilocks rule on chains of up to 23 superconducting qubits. We calculate calibrated and error-mitigated population dynamics and complex network measures, which indicate the formation of small-world mutual information networks. These networks decohere at fixed circuit depth independent of system size, the largest of which corresponding to 1,056 two-qubit gates. Such computations may enable the employment of QCA in applications like the simulation of strongly-correlated matter or beyond-classical computational demonstrations.
  2. Linear quantum measurements with independent particles are bounded by the standard quantum limit, which limits the precision achievable in estimating unknown phase parameters. The standard quantum limit can be overcome by entangling the particles, but the sensitivity is often limited by the final state readout, especially for complex entangled many-body states with non-Gaussian probability distributions. Here, by implementing an effective time-reversal protocol in an optically engineered many-body spin Hamiltonian, we demonstrate a quantum measurement with non-Gaussian states with performance beyond the limit of the readout scheme. This signal amplification through a time-reversed interaction achieves the greatest phase sensitivity improvement beyond the standard quantum limit demonstrated to date in any full Ramsey interferometer. These results open the field of robust time-reversal-based measurement protocols offering precision not too far from the Heisenberg limit. Potential applications include quantum sensors that operate at finite bandwidth, and the principle we demonstrate may also advance areas such as quantum engineering, quantum measurements and the search for new physics using optical-transition atomic clocks.
  3. Abstract

    We examine the usefulness of applying neural networks as a variational state ansatz for many-body quantum systems in the context of quantum information-processing tasks. In the neural network state ansatz, the complex amplitude function of a quantum state is computed by a neural network. The resulting multipartite entanglement structure captured by this ansatz has proven rich enough to describe the ground states and unitary dynamics of various physical systems of interest. In the present paper, we initiate the study of neural network states in quantum information-processing tasks. We demonstrate that neural network states are capable of efficiently representing quantum codes for quantum information transmission and quantum error correction, supplying further evidence for the usefulness of neural network states to describe multipartite entanglement. In particular, we show the following main results: (a) neural network states yield quantum codes with a high coherent information for two important quantum channels, the generalized amplitude damping channel and the dephrasure channel. These codes outperform all other known codes for these channels, and cannot be found using a direct parametrization of the quantum state. (b) For the depolarizing channel, the neural network state ansatz reliably finds the best known codes given by repetition codes. (c)more »Neural network states can be used to represent absolutely maximally entangled states, a special type of quantum error-correcting codes. In all three cases, the neural network state ansatz provides an efficient and versatile means as a variational parametrization of these highly entangled states.

    « less
  4. Ground-state entanglement governs various properties of quantum many-body systems at low temperatures and is the key to understanding gapped quantum phases of matter. Here we identify a structural property of entanglement in the ground state of gapped local Hamiltonians. This property is captured using a quantum information quantity known as the entanglement spread, which measures the difference between Rényi entanglement entropies. Our main result shows that gapped ground states possess limited entanglement spread across any partition of the system, exhibiting an area-law scaling. Our result applies to systems with interactions described by any graph, but we obtain an improved bound for the special case of lattices. These interaction graphs include cases where entanglement entropy is known not to satisfy an area law. We achieve our results first by connecting the ground-state entanglement to the communication complexity of testing bipartite entangled states and then devising a communication scheme for testing ground states using recently developed quantum algorithms for Hamiltonian simulation.
  5. The interplay between magnetic fields and interacting particles can lead to exotic phases of matter that exhibit topological order and high degrees of spatial entanglement1. Although these phases were discovered in a solid-state setting2,3, recent innovations in systems of ultracold neutral atoms—uncharged atoms that do not naturally experience a Lorentz force—allow the synthesis of artificial magnetic, or gauge, fields4,5,6,7,8,9,10. This experimental platform holds promise for exploring exotic physics in fractional quantum Hall systems, owing to the microscopic control and precision that is achievable in cold-atom systems11,12. However, so far these experiments have mostly explored the regime of weak interactions, which precludes access to correlated many-body states4,13,14,15,16,17. Here, through microscopic atomic control and detection, we demonstrate the controlled incorporation of strong interactions into a two-body system with a chiral band structure. We observe and explain the way in which interparticle interactions induce chirality in the propagation dynamics of particles in a ladder-like, real-space lattice governed by the interacting Harper–Hofstadter model, which describes lattice-confined, coherently mobile particles in the presence of a magnetic field18. We use a bottom-up strategy to prepare interacting chiral quantum states, thus circumventing the challenges of a top-down approach that begins with a many-body system, the size ofmore »which can hinder the preparation of controlled states. Our experimental platform combines all of the necessary components for investigating highly entangled topological states, and our observations provide a benchmark for future experiments in the fractional quantum Hall regime.« less