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It was recently demonstrated in bilayers of permalloy and platinum, that by combining spin torques arising from the spin Hall effect with Oersted field-like torques, magnetization dynamics can be induced with a directional preference.1 This “unidirectional” magnetization dynamic effect is made possible by exploiting the different even and odd symmetry that damping-like and field-like torques respectively have when magnetization is reversed. The experimental method used to demonstrate this effect was the spin-torque ferromagnetic (ST-FMR) resonance technique; a popular tool used in the phenomenological quantification of a myriad of damping-like and field-like torques. In this report, we review the phenomenology which is used to describe and analyze the unidirectional magnetization dynamic effect in ST-FMR measurements. We will focus on how the asymmetry in the dynamics also is present in the phase angle of the magnetization precession. We conclude by demonstrating a utility of this directional effect; we will outline an improved experimental method that can be used to distinguish a phase-shifted field-like torque in a ST-FMR experiment from a combination of field-like and damping-like torques.
Abstract Multi-functional thin films of boron (B) doped Cr 2 O 3 exhibit voltage-controlled and nonvolatile Néel vector reorientation in the absence of an applied magnetic field, H . Toggling of antiferromagnetic states is demonstrated in prototype device structures at CMOS compatible temperatures between 300 and 400 K. The boundary magnetization associated with the Néel vector orientation serves as state variable which is read via magnetoresistive detection in a Pt Hall bar adjacent to the B:Cr 2 O 3 film. Switching of the Hall voltage between zero and non-zero values implies Néel vector rotation by 90 degrees. Combined magnetometry, spin resolved inverse photoemission, electric transport and scanning probe microscopy measurements reveal B-dependent T N and resistivity enhancement, spin-canting, anisotropy reduction, dynamic polarization hysteresis and gate voltage dependent orientation of boundary magnetization. The combined effect enables H = 0, voltage controlled, nonvolatile Néel vector rotation at high-temperature. Theoretical modeling estimates switching speeds of about 100 ps making B:Cr 2 O 3 a promising multifunctional single-phase material for energy efficient nonvolatile CMOS compatible memory applications.
Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) compensated MnBi 2 Te 4 is antiferromagnetic, but undergoes a spin-flop transition at intermediate fields, resulting in a canted phase before saturation. In this work, we experimentally show that the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in MnBi 2 Te 4 originates from a topological response that is sensitive to the perpendicular magnetic moment and to its canting angle. Synthesis by molecular beam epitaxy allows us to obtain a large-area quasi-3D 24-layer MnBi 2 Te 4 with near-perfect compensation that hosts the phase diagram observed in bulk which we utilize to probe the AHE. This AHE is seen to exhibit an antiferromagnetic response at low magnetic fields, and a clear evolution at intermediate fields through surface and bulk spin-flop transitions into saturation. Throughout this evolution, the AHE is super-linear versus magnetization rather than the expected linear relationship. We reveal that this discrepancy is related to the canting angle, consistent with the symmetry of the crystal. Our findings bring to light a topological anomalous Hall response that can be found in non-collinear ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic phases.
Giant field-like torque by the out-of-plane magnetic spin Hall effect in a topological antiferromagnet
Spin-orbit torques (SOT) enable efficient electrical control of the magnetic state of ferromagnets, ferrimagnets and antiferromagnets. However, the conventional SOT has severe limitation that only in-plane spins accumulate near the surface, whether interpreted as a spin Hall effect (SHE) or as an Edelstein effect. Such a SOT is not suitable for controlling perpendicular magnetization, which would be more beneficial for realizing low-power-consumption memory devices. Here we report the observation of a giant magnetic-field-like SOT in a topological antiferromagnet Mn3Sn, whose direction and size can be tuned by changing the order parameter direction of the antiferromagnet. To understand the magnetic SHE (MSHE)- and the conventional SHE-induced SOTs on an equal footing, we formulate them as interface spin-electric-field responses and analyzed using a macroscopic symmetry analysis and a complementary microscopic quantum kinetic theory. In this framework, the large out-of-plane spin accumulation due to the MSHE has an inter-band origin and is likely to be caused by the large momentum-dependent spin splitting in Mn3Sn. Our work demonstrates the unique potential of antiferromagnetic Weyl semimetals in overcoming the limitations of conventional SOTs and in realizing low-power spintronics devices with new functionalities.
The interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) holds promises for design and control of chiral spin textures in low-dimensional magnets with efficient current-driven dynamics. Recently, an interlayer DMI has been found to exist across magnetic multilayers with a heavy-metal spacer between magnetic layers. This opens the possibility of chirality in these three-dimensional magnetic structures. Here we show the existence of the interlayer DMI in a synthetic antiferromagnetic multilayer with both inversion and in-plane asymmetry. We analyse the interlayer DMI’s effects on the magnetization and the current-induced spin-orbit torque (SOT) switching of magnetization through a combination of experimental and numerical studies. The chiral nature of the interlayer DMI leads to an asymmetric SOT switching of magnetization under an in-plane magnetic field. Our work paves the way for further explorations on controlling chiral magnetizations across magnetic multilayers through SOTs, which can provide a new path in the design of SOT devices.