skip to main content

Title: Deep Spiking Delayed Feedback Reservoirs and Its Application in Spectrum Sensing of MIMO-OFDM Dynamic Spectrum Sharing
In this paper, we introduce a deep spiking delayed feedback reservoir (DFR) model to combine DFR with spiking neuros: DFRs are a new type of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) that are able to capture the temporal correlations in time series while spiking neurons are energy-efficient and biologically plausible neurons models. The introduced deep spiking DFR model is energy-efficient and has the capability of analyzing time series signals. The corresponding field programmable gate arrays (FPGA)-based hardware implementation of such deep spiking DFR model is introduced and the underlying energy-efficiency and recourse utilization are evaluated. Various spike encoding schemes are explored and the optimal spike encoding scheme to analyze the time series has been identified. To be specific, we evaluate the performance of the introduced model using the spectrum occupancy time series data in MIMO-OFDM based cognitive radio (CR) in dynamic spectrum sharing (DSS) networks. In a MIMO-OFDM DSS system, available spectrum is very scarce and efficient utilization of spectrum is very essential. To improve the spectrum efficiency, the first step is to identify the frequency bands that are not utilized by the existing users so that a secondary user (SU) can use them for transmission. Due to the channel correlation as more » well as users' activities, there is a significant temporal correlation in the spectrum occupancy behavior of the frequency bands in different time slots. The introduced deep spiking DFR model is used to capture the temporal correlation of the spectrum occupancy time series and predict the idle/busy subcarriers in future time slots for potential spectrum access. Evaluation results suggest that our introduced model achieves higher area under curve (AUC) in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve compared with the traditional energy detection-based strategies and the learning-based support vector machines (SVMs). « less
Authors:
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1731672 1811720 1802710 1811497 1937487
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10248862
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence
Volume:
34
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
1292-1299
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The Reservoir Computing, a neural computing framework suited for temporal information processing, utilizes a dynamic reservoir layer for high-dimensional encoding, enhancing the separability of the network. In this paper, we exploit a Deep Learning (DL)-based detection strategy for Multiple-input, Multiple-output Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) symbol detection. To be specific, we introduce a Deep Echo State Network (DESN), a unique hierarchical processing structure with multiple time intervals, to enhance the memory capacity and accelerate the detection efficiency. The resulting hardware prototype with the hybrid memristor-CMOS co-design provides in-memory computing and parallel processing capabilities, significantly reducing the hardware and power overhead. With the standard 180nm CMOS process and memristive synapses, the introduced DESN consumes merely 105mW of power consumption, exhibiting 16.7% power reduction compared to shallow ESN designs even with more dynamic layers and associated neurons. Furthermore, numerical evaluations demonstrate the advantages of the DESN over state-of-the-art detection techniques in the literate for MIMO-OFDM systems even with a very limited training set, yielding a 47.8% improvement against conventional symbol detection techniques.
  2. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are currently being used as function approximators in many state-of-the-art Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms. Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) have been shown to drastically reduce the energy consumption of ANNs by encoding information in sparse temporal binary spike streams, hence emulating the communication mechanism of biological neurons. Due to their low energy consumption, SNNs are considered to be important candidates as co-processors to be implemented in mobile devices. In this work, the use of SNNs as stochastic policies is explored under an energy-efficient first-to-spike action rule, whereby the action taken by the RL agent is determined by the occurrence of the first spike among the output neurons. A policy gradient-based algorithm is derived considering a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) for spiking neurons. Experimental results demonstrate the capability of online trained SNNs as stochastic policies to gracefully trade energy consumption, as measured by the number of spikes, and control performance. Significant gains are shown as compared to the standard approach of converting an offline trained ANN into an SNN.
  3. Spike train classification is an important problem in many areas such as healthcare and mobile sensing, where each spike train is a high-dimensional time series of binary values. Conventional re- search on spike train classification mainly focus on developing Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) under resource-sufficient settings (e.g., on GPU servers). The neurons of the SNNs are usually densely connected in each layer. However, in many real-world applications, we often need to deploy the SNN models on resource-constrained platforms (e.g., mobile devices) to analyze high-dimensional spike train data. The high resource requirement of the densely-connected SNNs can make them hard to deploy on mobile devices. In this paper, we study the problem of energy-efficient SNNs with sparsely- connected neurons. We propose an SNN model with sparse spatio-temporal coding. Our solution is based on the re-parameterization of weights in an SNN and the application of sparsity regularization during optimization. We compare our work with the state-of-the-art SNNs and demonstrate that our sparse SNNs achieve significantly better computational efficiency on both neuromorphic and standard datasets with comparable classification accuracy. Furthermore, com- pared with densely-connected SNNs, we show that our method has a better capability of generalization on small-size datasets through extensive experiments.
  4. Driven by the expanse of Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), there is an increasing demand to process streams of temporal data on embedded devices with limited energy and power resources. Among all potential solutions, neuromorphic computing with spiking neural networks (SNN) that mimic the behavior of brain, have recently been placed at the forefront. Encoding information into sparse and distributed spike events enables low-power implementations, and the complex spatial temporal dynamics of synapses and neurons enable SNNs to detect temporal pattern. However, most existing hardware SNN implementations use simplified neuron and synapse models ignoring synapse dynamic, which is critical for temporal pattern detection and other applications that require temporal dynamics. To adopt a more realistic synapse model in neuromorphic platform its significant computation overhead must be addressed. In this work, we propose an FPGA-based SNN with biologically realistic neuron and synapse for temporal information processing. An encoding scheme to convert continuous real-valued information into sparse spike events is presented. The event-driven implementation of synapse dynamic model and its hardware design that is optimized to exploit the sparsity are also presented. Finally, we train the SNN on various temporal pattern-learning tasks and evaluate its performance and efficiency asmore »compared to rate-based models and artificial neural networks on different embedded platforms. Experiments show that our work can achieve 10X speed up and 196X gains in energy efficiency compared with GPU.« less
  5. Spike train classification is an important problem in many areas such as healthcare and mobile sensing, where each spike train is a high-dimensional time series of binary values. Conventional re- search on spike train classification mainly focus on developing Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) under resource-sufficient settings (e.g., on GPU servers). The neurons of the SNNs are usually densely connected in each layer. However, in many real-world applications, we often need to deploy the SNN models on resource-constrained platforms (e.g., mobile devices) to analyze high-dimensional spike train data. The high resource requirement of the densely-connected SNNs can make them hard to deploy on mobile devices. In this paper, we study the problem of energy-efficient SNNs with sparsely- connected neurons. We propose an SNN model with sparse spatiotemporal coding. Our solution is based on the re-parameterization of weights in an SNN and the application of sparsity regularization during optimization. We compare our work with the state-of-the-art SNNs and demonstrate that our sparse SNNs achieve significantly better computational efficiency on both neuromorphic and standard datasets with comparable classification accuracy. Furthermore, com- pared with densely-connected SNNs, we show that our method has a better capability of generalization on small-size datasets through extensive experiments.