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Title: The Cost of Energy-Efficiency in Digital Hardware: The Trade-Off between Energy Dissipation, Energy–Delay Product and Reliability in Electronic, Magnetic and Optical Binary Switches
Binary switches, which are the primitive units of all digital computing and information processing hardware, are usually benchmarked on the basis of their ‘energy–delay product’, which is the product of the energy dissipated in completing the switching action and the time it takes to complete that action. The lower the energy–delay product, the better the switch (supposedly). This approach ignores the fact that lower energy dissipation and faster switching usually come at the cost of poorer reliability (i.e., a higher switching error rate) and hence the energy–delay product alone cannot be a good metric for benchmarking switches. Here, we show the trade-off between energy dissipation, energy–delay product and error–probability for an electronic switch (a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor), a magnetic switch (a magnetic tunnel junction switched with spin transfer torque) and an optical switch (bistable non-linear mirror). As expected, reducing energy dissipation and/or energy–delay product generally results in increased switching error probability and reduced reliability.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2001255
NSF-PAR ID:
10251180
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Applied Sciences
Volume:
11
Issue:
12
ISSN:
2076-3417
Page Range / eLocation ID:
5590
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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    Acknowledgement

    This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Award No. ECCS-1931088. S.L. and H.W.S. acknowledge the support from the Improvement of Measurement Standards and Technology for Mechanical Metrology (Grant No. 22011044) by KRISS.

    References

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    [2] Hadsellet al.,Journal of Field Robotics,vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 120-144, 2009.

    [3] Najafabadiet al.,Journal of Big Data,vol. 2, no. 1, p. 1, 2015.

    [4] Zhaoet al.,Applied Physics Reviews,vol. 7, no. 1, 2020.

    [5] Zidanet al.,Nature Electronics,vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 22-29, 2018.

    [6] Wulfet al.,SIGARCH Comput. Archit. News,vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 20–24, 1995.

    [7] Wilkes,SIGARCH Comput. Archit. News,vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 4–6, 1995.

    [8] Ielminiet al.,Nature Electronics,vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 333-343, 2018.

    [9] Changet al.,Nano Letters,vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1297-1301, 2010.

    [10] Qinet al., Physica Status Solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters, pssr.202200075R1, In press, 2022.

     
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