skip to main content

Title: Muon Discrepancy Within D‐brane String Compactifications
We demonstrate that the discrepancy between the anomalous magnetic moment measured at BNL and Fermilab and the Standard Model prediction could be explained within the context of low-scale gravity and large extra-dimensions. The dominant contribution to (g − 2)µ originates in Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations (of the lepton gauge boson) which do not mix with quarks (to lowest order) and therefore can be quite light avoiding LHC constraints. We show that the KK contribution to (g − 2)µ,is universal with the string scale entering as an effective cutoff. The KK tower provides a unequivocal distinctive signal which will be within reach of the future muon smasher.
Authors:
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1913328 1831412
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10281993
Journal Name:
Fortschritte der Physik
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
2100084
ISSN:
0015-8208
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract. Urbanization and deforestation have important impacts on atmosphericparticulate matter (PM) over Amazonia. This study presents observations andanalysis of PM1 concentration, composition, and opticalproperties in central Amazonia during the dry season, focusing on theanthropogenic impacts. The primary study site was located 70 km downwind ofManaus, a city of over 2 million people in Brazil, as part of theGoAmazon2014/5 experiment. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol massspectrometer (AMS) provided data on PM1 composition, and aethalometermeasurements were used to derive the absorption coefficient babs,BrC ofbrown carbon (BrC) at 370 nm. Non-refractory PM1 mass concentrationsaveraged 12.2 µg m−3 at the primary study site, dominated byorganics (83 %), followed by sulfate (11 %). A decrease inbabs,BrC was observed as the mass concentration of nitrogen-containingorganic compounds decreased and the organic PM1 O:C ratio increased,suggesting atmospheric bleaching of the BrC components. The organic PM1was separated into six different classes by positive-matrix factorization(PMF), and the mass absorption efficiency Eabs associated with eachfactor was estimated through multivariate linear regression ofbabs,BrC on the factor loadings. The largest Eabs values wereassociated with urban (2.04±0.14 m2 g−1) and biomass-burning(0.82±0.04 to 1.50±0.07 m2 g−1) sources. Together, these sources contributed at least 80 % ofbabs,BrCmore »while accounting for 30 % to 40 % of the organic PM1 massconcentration. In addition, a comparison of organic PM1 compositionbetween wet and dry seasons revealed that only part of the 9-foldincrease in mass concentration between the seasons can be attributed tobiomass burning. Biomass-burning factor loadings increased by 30-fold,elevating its relative contribution to organic PM1 from about 10 % inthe wet season to 30 % in the dry season. However, most of the PM1mass (>60 %) in both seasons was accounted for by biogenicsecondary organic sources, which in turn showed an 8-fold seasonalincrease in factor loadings. A combination of decreased wet deposition andincreased emissions and oxidant concentrations, as well as a positivefeedback on larger mass concentrations are thought to play a role in theobserved increases. Furthermore, fuzzy c-means clustering identified threeclusters, namely “baseline”, “event”, and “urban” to representdifferent pollution influences during the dry season. The baseline cluster,representing the dry season background, was associated with a mean massconcentration of 9±3 µg m−3. This concentration increasedon average by 3 µg m−3 for both the urban and the event clusters.The event cluster, representing an increased influence of biomass burningand long-range transport of African volcanic emissions, was characterized byremarkably high sulfate concentrations. The urban cluster, representing theinfluence of Manaus emissions on top of the baseline, was characterized byan organic PM1 composition that differed from the other two clusters.The differences discussed suggest a shift in oxidation pathways as well asan accelerated oxidation cycle due to urban emissions, in agreement withfindings for the wet season.

    « less
  2. Abstract. Airborne and ground-based measurements of aerosol concentrations, chemicalcomposition, and gas-phase precursors were obtained in three valleys innorthern Utah (USA). The measurements were part of the Utah Winter FineParticulate Study (UWFPS) that took place in January–February 2017. Totalaerosol mass concentrations of PM1 were measured from a Twin Otteraircraft, with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). PM1 concentrationsranged from less than 2µgm−3 during clean periods to over100µgm−3 during the most polluted episodes, consistent withPM2.5 total mass concentrations measured concurrently at groundsites. Across the entire region, increases in total aerosol mass above∼2µgm−3 were associated with increases in theammonium nitrate mass fraction, clearly indicating that the highest aerosolmass loadings in the region were predominantly attributable to an increase inammonium nitrate. The chemical composition was regionally homogenous fortotal aerosol mass concentrations above 17.5µgm−3, with 74±5% (average±standard deviation) ammonium nitrate, 18±3%organic material, 6±3% ammonium sulfate, and 2±2%ammonium chloride. Vertical profiles of aerosol mass and volume in the regionshowed variable concentrations with height in the polluted boundary layer.Higher average mass concentrations were observed within themore »first few hundredmeters above ground level in all three valleys during pollution episodes. Gas-phase measurements of nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3) duringthe pollution episodes revealed that in the Cache and Utah valleys, partitioningof inorganic semi-volatiles to the aerosol phase was usually limited by theamount of gas-phase nitric acid, with NH3 being in excess. The inorganicspecies were compared with the ISORROPIA thermodynamic model. Total inorganicaerosol mass concentrations were calculated for various decreases in totalnitrate and total ammonium. For pollution episodes, our simulations of a50% decrease in total nitrate lead to a 46±3% decrease in totalPM1 mass. A simulated 50% decrease in total ammonium leads to a36±17%µgm−3 decrease in total PM1 mass, over the entirearea of the study. Despite some differences among locations, ourresults showed a higher sensitivity to decreasing nitric acid concentrationsand the importance of ammonia at the lowest total nitrate conditions. In theSalt Lake Valley, both HNO3 and NH3 concentrations controlledaerosol formation.

    « less
  3. A bstract AdS flux vacua with a parametric separation between the AdS and KK scales have been conjectured to be in the Swampland. We study flux compactifications of massive IIA supergravity with O6 planes which are claimed to allow moduli-stabilised and scale separated AdS 3 and AdS 4 vacua at arbitrary weak coupling and large volume. A recent refinement of the AdS Distance Conjecture is shown to be inconsistent with this class of AdS 3 vacua because the requisite discrete higher form symmetries are absent. We further perform a tree-level study of non-perturbative decays for the nonsupersymmetric versions of the AdS 3 solutions, and find that the vacua are stable within this approximation. Finally, we provide an initial investigation of the would-be dual CFT 2 s and CFT 3 s. We study roughly a dozen different models and find for all AdS 4 DGKT-type vacua that the dual operators to the lightest scalars have integer dimensions. For the putative CFT 2 dual theories of the AdS 3 vacua we find no integer dimensions for the operators.
  4. Abstract Using Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the resolved stellar population of KK 242 = NGC 6503-d1 =PGC 4689184, we measure the distance to the galaxy to be 6.46 ± 0.32 Mpc and find that KK 242 is a satellite of the low-mass spiral galaxy NGC 6503 located on the edge of the Local Void. Observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array show signs of a very faint H i signal at the position of KK 242 within a velocity range of V hel = −80 ± 10 km s −1 . This velocity range is severely contaminated by H i emission from the Milky Way and from NGC 6503. The dwarf galaxy is classified as the transition type, dIrr/dSph, with a total H i mass of < 10 6 M ⊙ and a star formation rate SFR(H α ) = −4.82 dex ( M ⊙ yr −1 ). Being at a projected separation of 31 kpc with a radial velocity difference of—105 km s −1 relative to NGC 6503, KK 242 gives an estimate of the halo mass of the spiral galaxy to be log ( M / M ⊙ ) = 11.6. Besides NGC 6503, theremore »are eight more detached low-luminosity spiral galaxies in the Local Volume: M33, NGC 2403, NGC 7793, NGC 1313, NGC 4236, NGC 5068, NGC 4656, and NGC 7640, from whose small satellites we have estimated the average total mass of the host galaxies and their average total mass-to- K -band-luminosity 〈 M T / M ⊙ 〉 = (3.46 ± 0.84) × 10 11 and (58 ± 19) M ⊙ / L ⊙ , respectively.« less
  5. Abstract

    We present the analysis of ∼100 pc scale compact radio continuum sources detected in 63 local (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs;LIR≥ 1011L), using FWHM ≲ 0.″1–0.″2 resolution 15 and 33 GHz observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. We identify a total of 133 compact radio sources with effective radii of 8–170 pc, which are classified into four main categories—“AGN” (active galactic nuclei), “AGN/SBnuc” (AGN-starburst composite nucleus), “SBnuc” (starburst nucleus), and “SF” (star-forming clumps)—based on ancillary data sets and the literature. We find that “AGN” and “AGN/SBnuc” more frequently occur in late-stage mergers and have up to 3 dex higher 33 GHz luminosities and surface densities compared with “SBnuc” and “SF,” which may be attributed to extreme nuclear starburst and/or AGN activity in the former. Star formation rates (SFRs) and surface densities (ΣSFR) are measured for “SF” and “SBnuc” using both the total 33 GHz continuum emission (SFR ∼ 0.14–13Myr−1, ΣSFR∼ 13–1600Myr−1kpc−2) and the thermal free–free emission from Hiiregions (median SFRth∼ 0.4Myr−1,ΣSFRth44Myr−1kpc−2). These values are 1–2 dex higher than those measured for similar-sized clumps in nearby normal (non-U/LIRGs). The latter also have a much flatter median 15–33 GHz spectral index (∼−0.08) compared withmore »“SBnuc” and “SF” (∼−0.46), which may reflect higher nonthermal contribution from supernovae and/or interstellar medium densities in local U/LIRGs that directly result from and/or lead to their extreme star-forming activities on 100 pc scales.

    « less