skip to main content


Title: On the role of Type Ia supernovae in the second-generation star formation in globular clusters
ABSTRACT By means of 3D hydrodynamic simulations, we study how Type Ia supernovae (SNe) explosions affect the star formation history and the chemical properties of second-generation (SG) stars in globular clusters (GC). SG stars are assumed to form once first generation asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars start releasing their ejecta; during this phase, external gas is accreted by the system and SNe Ia begin exploding, carving hot and tenuous bubbles. Given the large uncertainty on SNe Ia explosion times, we test two different values for the ‘delay time’. We run two different models for the external gas density: in the low-density scenario with short delay time, the explosions start at the beginning of the SG star formation, halting it in its earliest phases. The external gas hardly penetrates the system, therefore most SG stars present extreme helium abundances (Y > 0.33). The low-density model with delayed SN explosions has a more extended SG star formation epoch and includes SG stars with modest helium enrichment. On the contrary, the high-density model is weakly affected by SN explosions, with a final SG mass similar to the one obtained without SNe Ia. Most of the stars form from a mix of AGB ejecta and pristine gas and have a modest helium enrichment. We show that gas from SNe Ia may produce an iron spread of ∼0.14 dex, consistent with the spread found in about $20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of Galactic GCs, suggesting that SNe Ia might have played a key role in the formation of this sub-sample of GCs.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2009193
NSF-PAR ID:
10288080
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
506
Issue:
4
ISSN:
0035-8711
Page Range / eLocation ID:
5951 to 5968
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. ABSTRACT

    By means of 3D hydrodynamic simulations, we explore the effects of rotation in the formation of second-generation (SG) stars in globular clusters (GC). Our simulations follow the SG formation in a first-generation (FG) internally rotating GC; SG stars form out of FG asymptotic giant branch (AGB) ejecta and external pristine gas accreted by the system. We have explored two different initial rotational velocity profiles for the FG cluster and two different inclinations of the rotational axis with respect to the direction of motion of the external infalling gas, whose density has also been varied. For a low (10−24 g cm−3) external gas density, a disc of SG helium-enhanced stars is formed. The SG is characterized by distinct chemo-dynamical phase space patterns: it shows a more rapid rotation than the FG with the helium-enhanced SG subsystem rotating more rapidly than the moderate helium-enhanced one. In models with high external gas density ($10^{-23}\, {\rm g\ cm^{-3}}$), the inner SG disc is disrupted by the early arrival of external gas and only a small fraction of highly enhanced helium stars preserves the rotation acquired at birth. Variations in the inclination angle between the rotation axis and the direction of the infalling gas and the velocity profile can slightly alter the extent of the stellar disc and the rotational amplitude. The results of our simulations illustrate the complex link between dynamical and chemical properties of multiple populations and provide new elements for the interpretation of observational studies and future investigations of the dynamics of multiple-population GCs.

     
    more » « less
  2. ABSTRACT

    Using 3D radiation-hydrodynamical simulations, we study the effects of ionizing radiation on the formation of second-generation (SG) stars in globular clusters (GCs) with multiple stellar populations. In particular, we focus on massive ($10^7 \, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$) and young (40-Myr old) GCs. We consider stellar winds from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, ram pressure, gas accretion on to the cluster, and photo-ionization feedback of binary stars. We find that the stellar luminosity is strong enough to warm and ionize the intracluster medium, but it does not lead to a significant gas expulsion. The cluster can thus retain the ejecta of AGB stars and the accreted pristine gas. In addition, efficient cooling occurs in the central region of the cluster within $50\, \mathrm{Myr}$ from the formation of first generation stars, leading to the formation of SG stars. Our results indicate that the inclusion of photo-ionization does not suppress SG formation, but rather delays it by about $\sim 10\, \mathrm{Myr}$. The time delay depends on the density of the pristine gas, so that a denser medium exhibits a shorter delay in star formation. Moreover, photo-ionization leads to a modest decrease in the total SG mass, compared to a model without it.

     
    more » « less
  3. Abstract Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are thermonuclear explosions of degenerate white dwarf stars destabilized by mass accretion from a companion star 1 , but the nature of their progenitors remains poorly understood. A way to discriminate between progenitor systems is through radio observations; a non-degenerate companion star is expected to lose material through winds 2 or binary interaction 3 before explosion, and the supernova ejecta crashing into this nearby circumstellar material should result in radio synchrotron emission. However, despite extensive efforts, no type Ia supernova (SN Ia) has ever been detected at radio wavelengths, which suggests a clean environment and a companion star that is itself a degenerate white dwarf star 4,5 . Here we report on the study of SN 2020eyj, a SN Ia showing helium-rich circumstellar material, as demonstrated by its spectral features, infrared emission and, for the first time in a SN Ia to our knowledge, a radio counterpart. On the basis of our modelling, we conclude that the circumstellar material probably originates from a single-degenerate binary system in which a white dwarf accretes material from a helium donor star, an often proposed formation channel for SNe Ia (refs.  6,7 ). We describe how comprehensive radio follow-up of SN 2020eyj-like SNe Ia can improve the constraints on their progenitor systems. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are the living fossils holding records of chemical enrichment from early generations of stars. In this work, we perform a set of numerical simulations of the enrichment from a supernova (SN) of a first generation of metal-free (Pop III) star and the gravitational collapse of the enriched cloud, considering all relevant cooling/heating processes and chemical reactions as well as the growth of dust grains. We adopt faint SN models for the first time with progenitor masses MPopIII = 13–$80 \ {\rm M_{\bigodot }}$, which yield C-enhanced abundance patterns ([C/Fe] = 4.57–4.75) through mixing and fallback of innermost layers of the ejecta. This model also considers the formation and destruction of dust grains. We find that the metals ejected by the SN can be partly re-accreted by the same dark matter minihalo, and carbon abundance of the enriched cloud A(C) = 3.80–5.06 is lower than the abundance range of observed CEMP stars (A(C) ≳ 6) because the mass of the metals ejected by faint SNe is smaller than normal core-collapse SNe due to extensive fallback. We also find that cloud fragmentation is induced by gas cooling from carbonaceous grains for $M_{\rm Pop III}= 13 \ {\rm M_{\bigodot }}$ even with the lowest iron abundance [Fe/H] ∼ −9. This leads to the formation of low-mass stars, and these ‘giga metal-poor’ stars can survive until the present-day Universe and may be found by future observations. 
    more » « less
  5. Context. At present, there are strong indications that white dwarf (WD) stars with masses well below the Chandrasekhar limit ( M Ch ≈ 1.4 M ⊙ ) contribute a significant fraction of SN Ia progenitors. The relative fraction of stable iron-group elements synthesized in the explosion has been suggested as a possible discriminant between M Ch and sub- M Ch events. In particular, it is thought that the higher-density ejecta of M Ch WDs, which favours the synthesis of stable isotopes of nickel, results in prominent [Ni  II ] lines in late-time spectra (≳150 d past explosion). Aims. We study the explosive nucleosynthesis of stable nickel in SNe Ia resulting from M Ch and sub- M Ch progenitors. We explore the potential for lines of [Ni  II ] in the optical an near-infrared (at 7378 Å and 1.94 μm) in late-time spectra to serve as a diagnostic of the exploding WD mass. Methods. We reviewed stable Ni yields across a large variety of published SN Ia models. Using 1D M Ch delayed-detonation and sub- M Ch detonation models, we studied the synthesis of stable Ni isotopes (in particular, 58 Ni) and investigated the formation of [Ni  II ] lines using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative-transfer simulations with the CMFGEN code. Results. We confirm that stable Ni production is generally more efficient in M Ch explosions at solar metallicity (typically 0.02–0.08 M ⊙ for the 58 Ni isotope), but we note that the 58 Ni yield in sub- M Ch events systematically exceeds 0.01 M ⊙ for WDs that are more massive than one solar mass. We find that the radiative proton-capture reaction 57 Co( p ,  γ ) 58 Ni is the dominant production mode for 58 Ni in both M Ch and sub- M Ch models, while the α -capture reaction on 54 Fe has a negligible impact on the final 58 Ni yield. More importantly, we demonstrate that the lack of [Ni  II ] lines in late-time spectra of sub- M Ch events is not always due to an under-abundance of stable Ni; rather, it results from the higher ionization of Ni in the inner ejecta. Conversely, the strong [Ni  II ] lines predicted in our 1D M Ch models are completely suppressed when 56 Ni is sufficiently mixed with the innermost layers, which are rich in stable iron-group elements. Conclusions. [Ni  II ] lines in late-time SN Ia spectra have a complex dependency on the abundance of stable Ni, which limits their use in distinguishing among M Ch and sub- M Ch progenitors. However, we argue that a low-luminosity SN Ia displaying strong [Ni  II ] lines would most likely result from a Chandrasekhar-mass progenitor. 
    more » « less