- Award ID(s):
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- Date Published:
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- Scientific Reports
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Molybdenum (Mo), which is one among the refractory metals, is a promising material with a wide variety of technological applications in microelectronics, optoelectronics, and energy conversion and storage. However, understanding the structure–property correlation and optimization at the nanoscale dimension is quite important to meet the requirements of the emerging nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. In this context, we focused our efforts to derive a comprehensive understanding of the nanoscale structure, phase, and electronic properties of nanocrystalline Mo films with variable microstructure and grain size. Molybdenum films were deposited under varying temperature (25–500 °C), which resulted in Mo films with variable grain size of 9–22 nm. The grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analyses indicate the (110) preferred growth behavior the Mo films, though there is a marked decrease in hardness and elastic modulus values. In particular, there is a sizable difference in maximum and minimum elastic modulus values; the elastic modulus decreased from ~460 to 260–280 GPa with increasing substrate temperature from 25–500 °C. The plasticity index and wear resistance index values show a dramatic change with substrate temperature and grain size. Additionally, the optical properties of the nanocrystalline Mo films evaluated by spectroscopic ellipsometry indicate a marked dependence on the growth temperature and grain size. This dependence on grain size variation was particularly notable for the refractive index where Mo films with lower grain size fell in a range between ~2.75–3.75 across the measured wavelength as opposed to the range of 1.5–2.5 for samples deposited at temperatures of 400–500 °C, where the grain size is relatively higher. The conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies indicate a direct correlation with grain size variation and grain versus grain boundary conduction; the trend noted was improved electrical conductivity of the Mo films in correlation with increasing grain size. The combined ellipsometry and conductive AFM studies allowed us to optimize the structure–property correlation in nanocrystalline Mo films for application in electronics and optoelectronics.more » « less
The transport of hydrogen into Earth's deep interior may have an impact on lower mantle dynamics as well as on the seismic signature of subducted material. Due to the stability of the hydrous phases
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Single‐crystal X‐ray diffraction and Brillouin spectroscopy experiments were performed on a natural Cr‐pyrope (Prp71.0Alm12.6Sps0.7Grs3.5Uvr12.2) at high pressure and high temperature up to 11.0 GPa and 800 K. Fitting the collected data to the third‐order finite strain equation yields bulk modulus (
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The production of metal via the iron disproportionation reaction in the deep Earth has been a long debated topic with important implications for the geochemistry of the lower mantle. To explore the occurrence of the iron disproportionation reaction from 25 to 65 GPa, a natural almandine‐pyrope‐grossular garnet was studied with in situ X‐ray diffraction (XRD) in the laser‐heated diamond anvil cell and ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Upon heating the natural almandine‐pyrope‐grossular garnet up to 3000 K up to 65 GPa, the formation of phase assemblage consisting of bridgmanite, stishovite, and davemaoite was confirmed by XRD, but because of the low abundance of Fe metal and small grain size, XRD was determined not to be effective in detecting the disproportionation reaction. Examination of the samples recovered between 39 and 64 GPa by SEM analysis revealed the presence of nm‐scale disproportionated iron metal grains as an additional product of this reaction that was not detectable in the XRD patterns. Volume compression data of bridgmanite synthesized in the experiments were fit to the Birch‐Murnaghan equation of state and compared to similar compositions. Bridgmanite was found to decompress to the LiNbO3‐type structure, indicating a high FeAlO3content, in accordance with the occurrence of a disproportionation reaction. The experimental confirmation of disproportionated metallic Fe has significant implications for the distribution of siderophile and volatile elements in the lower mantle.
null (Ed.)Abstract The high-pressure phases of oxyhydroxides (δ-AlOOH, ε-FeOOH, and their solid solution), candidate components of subducted slabs, have wide stability fields, thus potentially influencing volatile circulation and dynamics in the Earth’s lower mantle. Here, we report the elastic wave velocities of δ-(Al,Fe)OOH (Fe/(Al + Fe) = 0.13, δ-Fe13) to 79 GPa, determined by nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering. At pressures below 20 GPa, a softening of the phonon spectra is observed. With increasing pressure up to the Fe 3+ spin crossover (~ 45 GPa), the Debye sound velocity ( v D ) increases. At higher pressures, the low spin δ-Fe13 is characterized by a pressure-invariant v D . Using the equation of state for the same sample, the shear-, compressional-, and bulk-velocities ( v S , v P , and v Φ ) are calculated and extrapolated to deep mantle conditions. The obtained velocity data show that δ-(Al,Fe)OOH may cause low- v Φ and low- v P anomalies in the shallow lower mantle. At deeper depths, we find that this hydrous phase reproduces the anti-correlation between v S and v Φ reported for the large low seismic velocity provinces, thus serving as a potential seismic signature of hydrous circulation in the lower mantle.more » « less