Massive MIMO using low-resolution digital-to-analog converters (DACs) at the base station (BS) is an attractive downlink approach for reducing hardware overhead and for reducing power consumption, but managing the large quantization noise effect is a challenge. Spatial Sigma-Delta modulation is a recently emerged technique for tackling the aforementioned effect. Assuming a uniform linear array at the BS, it works by shaping the quantization noise as high spatial-frequency, or angle, noise. By restricting the user-serving region to be within a smaller angular region, the quantization noise incurred by the users can be effectively reduced. We previously showed that, under the one-bit DAC case, the quantization noise can be satisfactorily contained using a simple first-order Sigma-Delta modulation scheme. In this work we study the potential of spatial Sigma-Delta modulation in the two-bit DAC case and under second-order modulation. Our empirical results indicate that second-order spatial Sigma-Delta modulation provides better quantization noise suppression.
Fabrication and Characterization of a 900-Element 222.5 GHz Single-bit Reflective Surface with Suppressed Quantization Lobes
We present a topology for suppressing quantization lobes in 1-bit reconfigurable reflective surfaces (RRSs). RRSs are planar surfaces that redirect the imping waves to the desired direction through phase modulation. For single-bit modulation, plane-wave illuminated RRSs exhibit quantization lobes due to the limited number of available phase bits. To eliminate such lobes, we randomize the quantization error by employing a fixed but random phase delay in every unit-cell of the RRS. Specifically, we focus on the fabrication and characterization of a mmWave single-layer, 1-bit, 30×30 randomized RRS designed at 222.5 GHz. The quasi-optical RCS characterization of the fabricated RRS demonstrates the successful suppression of the quantization lobe using the proposed technique.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- 2021 United States National Committee of URSI National Radio Science Meeting (USNC-URSI NRSM)
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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