skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on November 3, 2022

Title: Two-fluid approach to weak plasma turbulence
Abstract Weakly turbulent processes that take place in plasmas are customarily formulated in terms of kinetic theory. However, owing to an inherent complexity associated with the problem, thus far the theory is fully developed largely for unmagnetized plasmas. In the present paper it is shown that a warm two fluid theory can successfully be employed in order to partially formulate the weak turbulence theory in spatially uniform plasma. Specifically, it is shown that the nonlinear wave-wave interaction, or decay processes, can be reproduced by the two-fluid formalism. The present finding shows that the same approach can in principle be extended to magnetized plasmas, which is a subject of future work.
Authors:
Award ID(s):
1842643
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10325733
Journal Name:
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
Volume:
63
Issue:
12
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
125012
ISSN:
0741-3335
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract The mechanisms of wind-forced variability of the zonal overturning circulation (ZOC) are explored using an idealized shallow water numerical model, quasigeostrophic theory, and simple analytic conceptual models. Two wind-forcing scenarios are considered: midlatitude variability in the subtropical/subpolar gyres and large-scale variability spanning the equator. It is shown that the midlatitude ZOC exchanges water with the western boundary current and attains maximum amplitude on the same order of magnitude as the Ekman transport at a forcing period close to the basin-crossing time scale for baroclinic Rossby waves. Near the equator, large-scale wind variations force a ZOC that increases in amplitudemore »with decreasing forcing period such that wind stress variability on annual time scales forces a ZOC of O (50) Sv (1 Sv ≡ 10 6 m 3 s −1 ). For both midlatitude and low-latitude variability the ZOC and its related heat transport are comparable to those of the meridional overturning circulation. The underlying physics of the ZOC relies on the influences of the variation of the Coriolis parameter with latitude on both the geostrophic flow and the baroclinic Rossby wave phase speed as the fluid adjusts to time-varying winds. Significance Statement The purpose of this study is to better understand how large-scale winds at mid- and low latitudes move water eastward or westward, even in the deep ocean that is not in direct contact with the atmosphere. This is important because these currents can shift where heat is stored in the ocean and if it might be released into the atmosphere. It is shown that large-scale winds can drive rapid cross-basin transports of water masses, especially so at low latitudes. The present results provide a guide on what controls this motion and highlight the importance of large-scale ocean waves on the water movement and heat storage.« less
  2. We consider a strongly nonlinear long wave model for large amplitude internal waves in a three-layer flow between two rigid boundaries. The model extends the two-layer Miyata–Choi–Camassa (MCC) model (Miyata, Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Water Waves , eds. H. Horikawa & H. Maruo, 1988, pp. 399–406; Choi & Camassa, J. Fluid Mech. , vol. 396, 1999, pp. 1–36) and is able to describe the propagation of long internal waves of both the first and second baroclinic modes. Solitary-wave solutions of the model are shown to be governed by a Hamiltonian system with two degrees of freedom. Emphasis is given tomore »the solitary waves of the second baroclinic mode (mode 2) and their strongly nonlinear characteristics that fail to be captured by weakly nonlinear models. In certain asymptotic limits relevant to oceanic applications and previous laboratory experiments, it is shown that large amplitude mode-2 waves with single-hump profiles can be described by the solitary-wave solutions of the MCC model, originally developed for mode-1 waves in a two-layer system. In other cases, however, e.g. when the density stratification is weak and the density transition layer is thin, the richness of the dynamical system with two degrees of freedom becomes apparent and new classes of mode-2 solitary-wave solutions of large amplitudes, characterized by multi-humped wave profiles, can be found. In contrast with the classical solitary-wave solutions described by the MCC equation, such multi-humped solutions cannot exist for a continuum set of wave speeds for a given layer configuration. Our analytical predictions based on asymptotic theory are then corroborated by a numerical study of the original Hamiltonian system.« less
  3. Pile driving is used for constructing foundation supports for offshore structures. Underwater noise, induced by in-water pile driving, could adversely impact marine life near the piling location. Many studies have computed this noise in close ranges by using semi-analytical models and Finite Element Method (FEM) models. This work presents a Spectral Element Method (SEM) wave simulator as an alternative simulation tool to obtain close-range underwater piling noise in complex, fully three-dimensional, axially-asymmetric settings in the time domain for impacting force signals with high-frequency contents (e.g., frequencies greater than 1000[Formula: see text]Hz). The presented numerical results show that the flexibility ofmore »SEM can accommodate the axially-asymmetric geometry of a model, its heterogeneity, and fluid-solid coupling. We showed that there are multiple Mach Cones of different angles in fluid and sediment caused by the difference in wave speeds in fluid, a pile, and sediment. The angles of Mach Cones in our numerical results match those that are theoretically evaluated. A previous work 18 had shown that Mach Cone waves lead to intense amplitudes of underwater piling noise via a FEM simulation in an axis-symmetric setting. Since it modeled sediment as fluid with a larger wave speed than that of water, we examined if our SEM simulation, using solid sediment–fluid coupling, leads to additional Mach Cones. Because this work computes the shear wave in sediment and the downward-propagating shear wave in a pile, we present six Mach Cones in fluid and sediment induced by downward-propagating P- and S-waves in a pile in lieu of two previously-reported Mach Cones in fluid and sediment (modeled as fluid) induced by a downward-propagating P-wave in a pile. We also showed that the amplitudes of the close-range underwater noise are dependent on the cross-sectional geometry of a pile. In addition, when a pile is surrounded by a solid of an axially-asymmetric geometry, waves are reflected from the surface of the surrounding solid back to the fluid so that constructive and destructive interferences of waves take place in the fluid and affect the amplitude of the underwater piling noise.« less
  4. Structural anisotropy, often observed in naturally occurring materials such as wood and human tissues, is central to the function in several engineered and non-engineered applications. In this study, we present the theory and proof-of-concept demonstration of an ultrasound-assisted non-contact manufacturing approach to create well-defined spatial patterns of micro-particles within a fluid matrix. A chamber with opposing pair of ultrasonic transducers was designed and prototyped based on standing bulk acoustic wave theory, and it was used to study the effects of ultrasound frequency (1, 1.5, 2, 3 MHz) and voltage amplitude (80, 160 mVpp) on alignment characteristics of polymer micro-particles (meanmore »Ø = 8 μm) suspended in water (0.01 g/ml). The experimental results were consistent with theory in that the micro-particles aligned along linear strands, with the inter-strand spacing reducing with increasing frequency (p < 0.05). Increasing voltage amplitude reduced the time taken to align the particles, but it did not significantly change the observed spacing (p > 0.05). The observed spacing, however, was higher than the theoretical spacing of half-wavelength, for each frequency and amplitude. The alignment of living human adipose derived stem cells in viscous alginate hydrogel matrix was also successfully demonstrated. The approach presented herein can be scaled up into manufacturing processes, including layered manufacturing, to create highly functional mechanically and/or electrically anisotropic composites through controlled spatial geometry, as well as to biofabricate engineered tissues with aligned cells and extracellular matrix components to mimic natural tissues.« less
  5. We present a detailed guide to advanced collisionless fluid models that incorporate kinetic effects into the fluid framework, and that are much closer to the collisionless kinetic description than traditional magnetohydrodynamics. Such fluid models are directly applicable to modelling the turbulent evolution of a vast array of astrophysical plasmas, such as the solar corona and the solar wind, the interstellar medium, as well as accretion disks and galaxy clusters. The text can be viewed as a detailed guide to Landau fluid models and it is divided into two parts. Part 1 is dedicated to fluid models that are obtained bymore »closing the fluid hierarchy with simple (non-Landau fluid) closures. Part 2 is dedicated to Landau fluid closures. Here in Part 1, we discuss the fluid model of Chew–Goldberger–Low (CGL) in great detail, together with fluid models that contain dispersive effects introduced by the Hall term and by the finite Larmor radius corrections to the pressure tensor. We consider dispersive effects introduced by the non-gyrotropic heat flux vectors. We investigate the parallel and oblique firehose instability, and show that the non-gyrotropic heat flux strongly influences the maximum growth rate of these instabilities. Furthermore, we discuss fluid models that contain evolution equations for the gyrotropic heat flux fluctuations and that are closed at the fourth-moment level by prescribing a specific form for the distribution function. For the bi-Maxwellian distribution, such a closure is known as the ‘normal’ closure. We also discuss a fluid closure for the bi-kappa distribution. Finally, by considering one-dimensional Maxwellian fluid closures at higher-order moments, we show that such fluid models are always unstable. The last possible non Landau fluid closure is therefore the ‘normal’ closure, and beyond the fourth-order moment, Landau fluid closures are required.« less