skip to main content


Title: One dimensional gapped quantum phases and enriched fusion categories
A bstract In this work, we use Ising chain and Kitaev chain to check the validity of an earlier proposal in arXiv:2011.02859 that enriched fusion (higher) categories provide a unified categorical description of all gapped/gapless quantum liquid phases, including symmetry-breaking phases, topological orders, SPT/SET orders and CFT-type gapless quantum phases. In particular, we show explicitly that, in each gapped phase realized by these two models, the spacetime observables form a fusion category enriched in a braided fusion category such that its monoidal center is trivial. We also study the categorical descriptions of the boundaries of these models. In the end, we obtain a classification of and the categorical descriptions of all 1-dimensional (spatial dimension) gapped quantum phases with a bosonic/fermionic finite onsite symmetry.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2022428
NSF-PAR ID:
10326327
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of High Energy Physics
Volume:
2022
Issue:
3
ISSN:
1029-8479
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We study the stability with respect to a broad class of perturbations of gapped ground-state phases of quantum spin systems defined by frustration-free Hamiltonians. The core result of this work is a proof using the Bravyi–Hastings–Michalakis (BHM) strategy that under a condition of local topological quantum order (LTQO), the bulk gap is stable under perturbations that decay at long distances faster than a stretched exponential. Compared to previous work, we expand the class of frustration-free quantum spin models that can be handled to include models with more general boundary conditions, and models with discrete symmetry breaking. Detailed estimates allow us to formulate sufficient conditions for the validity of positive lower bounds for the gap that are uniform in the system size and that are explicit to some degree. We provide a survey of the BHM strategy following the approach of Michalakis and Zwolak, with alterations introduced to accommodate more general than just periodic boundary conditions and more general lattices. We express the fundamental condition known as LTQO by means of an indistinguishability radius, which we introduce. Using the uniform finite-volume results, we then proceed to study the thermodynamic limit. We first study the case of a unique limiting ground state and then also consider models with spontaneous breaking of a discrete symmetry. In the latter case, LTQO cannot hold for all local observables. However, for perturbations that preserve the symmetry, we show stability of the gap and the structure of the broken symmetry phases. We prove that the GNS Hamiltonian associated with each pure state has a non-zero spectral gap above the ground state.

     
    more » « less
  2. We present a family of electron-based coupled-wire models of bosonic orbifold topological phases, referred to as twist liquids, in two spatial dimensions. All local fermion degrees of freedom are gapped and removed from the topological order by many-body interactions. Bosonic chiral spin liquids and anyonic superconductors are constructed on an array of interacting wires, each supports emergent massless Majorana fermions that are non-local (fractional) and constitute the S O ( N ) Kac-Moody Wess-Zumino-Witten algebra at level 1. We focus on the dihedral D k symmetry of S O ( 2 n ) 1 , and its promotion to a gauge symmetry by manipulating the locality of fermion pairs. Gauging the symmetry (sub)group generates the C / G twist liquids, where G = Z 2 for C = U ( 1 ) l , S U ( n ) 1 , and G = Z 2 , Z k , D k for C = S O ( 2 n ) 1 . We construct exactly solvable models for all of these topological states. We prove the presence of a bulk excitation energy gap and demonstrate the appearance of edge orbifold conformal field theories corresponding to the twist liquid topological orders. We analyze the statistical properties of the anyon excitations, including the non-Abelian metaplectic anyons and a new class of quasiparticles referred to as Ising-fluxons. We show an eight-fold periodic gauging pattern in S O ( 2 n ) 1 / G by identifying the non-chiral components of the twist liquids with discrete gauge theories. 
    more » « less
  3. Topological domain walls separating 2+1 dimensional topologically ordered phases can be understood in terms of Witt equivalences between the UMTCs describing anyons in the bulk topological orders. However, this picture does not provide a framework for decomposing stacks of multiple domain walls into superselection sectors — i.e., into fundamental domain wall types that cannot be mixed by any local operators. Such a decomposition can be understood using an alternate framework in the case that the topological order is anomaly-free, in the sense that it can be realized by a commuting projector lattice model. By placing these Witt equivalences in the context of a 3-category of potentially anomalous (2+1)D topological orders, we develop a framework for computing the decomposition of parallel topological domain walls into indecomposable superselection sectors, extending the previous understanding to topological orders with non-trivial anomaly. We characterize the superselection sectors in terms of domain wall particle mobility, which we formalize in terms of tunnelling operators. The mathematical model for the 3-category of topological orders is the 3-category of fusion categories enriched over a fixed unitary modular tensor category.

     
    more » « less
  4. We study a generalized quantum spin ladder with staggered long rangeinteractions that decay as a power-law with exponent \alpha α .Using large scale quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) and density matrixrenormalization group (DMRG) simulations, we show that this modelundergoes a transition from a rung-dimer phase characterized by anon-local string order parameter, to a symmetry broken N'eel phase. Wefind evidence that the transition is second order. In the magneticallyordered phase, the spectrum exhibits gapless modes, while excitations inthe gapped phase are well described in terms of triplons – bound statesof spinons across the legs. We obtain the momentum resolved spin dynamicstructure factor numerically and find a well defined triplon band thatevolves into a gapless magnon dispersion across the transition. Wefurther discuss the possibility of deconfined criticality in thismodel. 
    more » « less
  5. INTRODUCTION Solving quantum many-body problems, such as finding ground states of quantum systems, has far-reaching consequences for physics, materials science, and chemistry. Classical computers have facilitated many profound advances in science and technology, but they often struggle to solve such problems. Scalable, fault-tolerant quantum computers will be able to solve a broad array of quantum problems but are unlikely to be available for years to come. Meanwhile, how can we best exploit our powerful classical computers to advance our understanding of complex quantum systems? Recently, classical machine learning (ML) techniques have been adapted to investigate problems in quantum many-body physics. So far, these approaches are mostly heuristic, reflecting the general paucity of rigorous theory in ML. Although they have been shown to be effective in some intermediate-size experiments, these methods are generally not backed by convincing theoretical arguments to ensure good performance. RATIONALE A central question is whether classical ML algorithms can provably outperform non-ML algorithms in challenging quantum many-body problems. We provide a concrete answer by devising and analyzing classical ML algorithms for predicting the properties of ground states of quantum systems. We prove that these ML algorithms can efficiently and accurately predict ground-state properties of gapped local Hamiltonians, after learning from data obtained by measuring other ground states in the same quantum phase of matter. Furthermore, under a widely accepted complexity-theoretic conjecture, we prove that no efficient classical algorithm that does not learn from data can achieve the same prediction guarantee. By generalizing from experimental data, ML algorithms can solve quantum many-body problems that could not be solved efficiently without access to experimental data. RESULTS We consider a family of gapped local quantum Hamiltonians, where the Hamiltonian H ( x ) depends smoothly on m parameters (denoted by x ). The ML algorithm learns from a set of training data consisting of sampled values of x , each accompanied by a classical representation of the ground state of H ( x ). These training data could be obtained from either classical simulations or quantum experiments. During the prediction phase, the ML algorithm predicts a classical representation of ground states for Hamiltonians different from those in the training data; ground-state properties can then be estimated using the predicted classical representation. Specifically, our classical ML algorithm predicts expectation values of products of local observables in the ground state, with a small error when averaged over the value of x . The run time of the algorithm and the amount of training data required both scale polynomially in m and linearly in the size of the quantum system. Our proof of this result builds on recent developments in quantum information theory, computational learning theory, and condensed matter theory. Furthermore, under the widely accepted conjecture that nondeterministic polynomial-time (NP)–complete problems cannot be solved in randomized polynomial time, we prove that no polynomial-time classical algorithm that does not learn from data can match the prediction performance achieved by the ML algorithm. In a related contribution using similar proof techniques, we show that classical ML algorithms can efficiently learn how to classify quantum phases of matter. In this scenario, the training data consist of classical representations of quantum states, where each state carries a label indicating whether it belongs to phase A or phase B . The ML algorithm then predicts the phase label for quantum states that were not encountered during training. The classical ML algorithm not only classifies phases accurately, but also constructs an explicit classifying function. Numerical experiments verify that our proposed ML algorithms work well in a variety of scenarios, including Rydberg atom systems, two-dimensional random Heisenberg models, symmetry-protected topological phases, and topologically ordered phases. CONCLUSION We have rigorously established that classical ML algorithms, informed by data collected in physical experiments, can effectively address some quantum many-body problems. These rigorous results boost our hopes that classical ML trained on experimental data can solve practical problems in chemistry and materials science that would be too hard to solve using classical processing alone. Our arguments build on the concept of a succinct classical representation of quantum states derived from randomized Pauli measurements. Although some quantum devices lack the local control needed to perform such measurements, we expect that other classical representations could be exploited by classical ML with similarly powerful results. How can we make use of accessible measurement data to predict properties reliably? Answering such questions will expand the reach of near-term quantum platforms. Classical algorithms for quantum many-body problems. Classical ML algorithms learn from training data, obtained from either classical simulations or quantum experiments. Then, the ML algorithm produces a classical representation for the ground state of a physical system that was not encountered during training. Classical algorithms that do not learn from data may require substantially longer computation time to achieve the same task. 
    more » « less