- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 16672 to 16679
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Bi 3 MoM T O 9 (BMoM T O; M T , transition metals of Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) thin films with a layered supercell structure have been deposited on LaAlO 3 (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Microstructural analysis suggests that pillar-like domains with higher transition metal concentration ( e.g. , Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) are embedded in the Mo-rich matrix with layered supercell structures. The layered supercell structure of the BMoM T O thin films accounts for the anisotropic multifunctionalities such as the magnetic easy axis along the in-plane direction, and the anisotropic optical properties. Ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism have been demonstrated in the thin films at room temperature, which confirms the multiferroic nature of the system. By varying the transition metal M T in the film, the band gaps of the BMoM T O films can be effectively tuned from 2.44 eV to 2.82 eV, while the out-of-plane dielectric constant of the thin films also varies. The newly discovered layered nanocomposite systems present their potential in ferroelectrics, multiferroics and non-linear optics.
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The design of multifunctional alloys with multiple chemical components requires controllable synthesis approaches. Physical vapor deposition techniques, which result in thin films (<1 μm), have previously been demonstrated for micromechanical devices and metallic combinatorial libraries. However, this approach deviates from bulk-like properties due to the residual stress derived in thin films and is limited by total film thickness. Here, we report a route to obtain ternary Ni-Mn-Sn alloy thick films with controllable compositions and thicknesses by annealing electrochemically deposited multi-layer monatomic (Ni, Mn, Sn) films, deposited sequentially from separate aqueous deposition baths. We demonstrate (1) controllable compositions, with high degree of uniformity, (2) smooth films, and (3) high reproducibility between film transformation behavior. Our results demonstrate a positive correlation between alloy film thicknesses and grain sizes, as well as consistent bulk-like transformation behavior.
High ionic conductivity in fluorite δ-bismuth oxide-based vertically aligned nanocomposite thin filmsδ-Bi 2 O 3 has long been touted as a potential material for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to its intrinsically high ionic conductivity. However, its limited operational temperature has led to stabilising the phase from >725 °C to room temperature either by doping, albeit with a compromise in conductivity, or by growing the phase confined within superlattice thin films. Superlattice architectures are challenging to implement in functional μSOFC devices owing to their ionic conducting channels being in the plane of the film. Vertically aligned nanocomposites (VANs) have the potential to overcome these limitations, as their nanocolumnar structures are perpendicular to the plane of the film, hence connecting the electrodes at top and bottom. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the growth of epitaxially stabilised δ-Bi 2 O 3 in VAN films, stabilised independently of substrate strain. The phase is doped with Dy and is formed in a VAN film which incorporates DyMnO 3 as a vertically epitaxially stabilising matrix phase. Our VAN films exhibit very high ionic conductivity, reaching 10 −3 S cm −1 at 500 °C. This work opens up the possibility to incorporate thin film δ-Bi 2 O 3 based VANs into functionalmore »
Molecular beam epitaxy growth and structure of self-assembled Bi 2 Se 3 /Bi 2 MnSe 4 multilayer heterostructures
We demonstrate that the introduction of an elemental beam of Mn during the molecular beam epitaxial growth of Bi2Se3results in the formation of layers of Bi2MnSe4that intersperse between layers of pure Bi2Se3. This study revises the assumption held by many who study magnetic topological insulators (TIs) that Mn incorporates randomly at Bi-substitutional sites during epitaxial growth of Mn:Bi2Se3. Here, we report the formation of thin film magnetic TI Bi2MnSe4with stoichiometric composition that grows in a self-assembled multilayer heterostructure with layers of Bi2Se3, where the number of Bi2Se3layers separating the single Bi2MnSe4layers is approximately defined by the relative arrival rate of Mn ions to Bi and Se ions during growth, and we present its compositional, structural, and electronic properties. We support a model for the epitaxial growth of Bi2MnSe4in a near-periodic self-assembled layered heterostructure with Bi2Se3with corresponding theoretical calculations of the energetics of this material and those of similar compositions. Computationally derived electronic structure of these heterostructures demonstrates the existence of topologically nontrivial surface states at sufficient thickness.