skip to main content

Title: High Drag States in Tidally Modulated Stratified Wakes
Abstract Large-eddy simulations (LES) are employed to investigate the role of time-varying currents on the form drag and vortex dynamics of submerged 3D topography in a stratified rotating environment. The current is of the form U c + U t sin(2 πf t t ), where U c is the mean, U t is the tidal component, and f t is its frequency. A conical obstacle is considered in the regime of low Froude number. When tides are absent, eddies are shed at the natural shedding frequency f s , c . The relative frequency is varied in a parametric study, which reveals states of high time-averaged form drag coefficient. There is a twofold amplification of the form drag coefficient relative to the no-tide ( U t = 0) case when lies between 0.5 and 1. The spatial organization of the near-wake vortices in the high drag states is different from a Kármán vortex street. For instance, the vortex shedding from the obstacle is symmetric when and strongly asymmetric when . The increase in form drag with increasing stems from bottom intensification of the pressure in the obstacle lee which we link to changes in flow separation and near-wake vortices.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Physical Oceanography
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1033 to 1048
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Large eddy simulations are employed to investigate the role of tidal modulation strength on wake vortices and dissipation in flow past three‐dimensional topography, specifically a conical abyssal hill. The barotropic current is of the formUc + Ut sin(Ωtt), whereUcandUtare the mean and oscillatory components, respectively, and Ωtis the tidal frequency. A regime with strong stratification and weak rotation is considered. The velocity ratioR = Ut/Ucis varied from 0 to 1. Simulation results show that the frequency of wake vortices reduces gradually with increasingRfrom its natural shedding frequency atR = 0 to Ωt/2 whenR ≥ 0.2. The ratio ofRand the excursion number, denoted as, controls the shift in the vortex frequency. When, vortices are trapped in the wake during tidal deceleration, extending the vortex shedding cycle to two tidal cycles. Elevated dissipation rates in the obstacle lee are observed in the lateral shear layer, hydraulic jet, and the near wake. The regions of strong dissipation are spatially intermittent, with values exceedingduring the maximum‐velocity phase, whereDis the base diameter of the hill. The maximum dissipation rate during the tidal cycle increases monotonically withRin the downstream wake. Additionally, the normalized area‐integrated dissipation rate in the hydraulic response region scales withRas (1 + R)4. Results show that the wake dissipation energetically dominates the internal wave flux in this class of low‐Froude number geophysical flows.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Wake vortices in tidally modulated currents past a conical hill in a stratified fluid are investigated using large‐eddy‐simulation. The vortex shedding frequency is altered from its natural steady‐current value leading to synchronization of wake vortices with the tide. The relative frequency (f*), defined as the ratio of natural shedding frequency (fs,c) in a current without tides to the tidal frequency (ft), is varied to expose different regimes of tidal synchronization. Whenf*increases and approaches 0.25, vortex shedding at the body changes from a classical asymmetric Kármán vortex street. The wake evolves downstream to restore the Kármán vortex‐street asymmetry but the discrete spectral peak, associated with wake vortices, is found to differ from bothftandfs,c, a novel result. The spectral peak occurs at the first subharmonic of the tidal frequency when 0.5 ≤ f*< 1 and at the second subharmonic when 0.25 ≤ f*< 0.5.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    The present study uses eddy‐resolving numerical simulations to investigate how bed roughness affects flow and turbulence structure around an isolated, partially‐buried mussel (Unio elongatulus) aligned with the incoming flow. The rough‐bed simulations resolve the flow past the exposed part of a gravel bed, whose surface is obtained from a laboratory experiment that also provides some additional data for validation of the numerical model. Results are also discussed for the limiting case of a horizontal smooth bed. Additionally, the effects of varying the level of burial of the mussel inside the substrate and the discharge through the two mussel siphons are investigated via a set of simulations in which the ratio between the median diameter of the (gravel) particles forming the rough bed,d50, and the height of the exposed part of the mussel,h, varies between 0.10 and 0.22. The increase of the bed roughness is associated with a strong amplification of the turbulence kinetic energy in the near‐wake region. Increasing the bed roughness and/or reducinghintensifies the interactions of the eddies generated by the bed particles with the base and tip vortices induced by the active filtering and by the mussel shell, respectively, which, in turn, induces a more rapid dissipation of these vortices. Increasing the bed roughness also reduces the strength of the main downwelling flow region forming in the wake. The strong downwelling near the symmetry plane is the main reason why the symmetric wake shedding mode dominates in the smooth bed simulations with negligible active filtering. By contrast, the anti‐symmetric wake shedding mode dominates in the simulations conduced with a high value of the bed roughness. The mean streamwise drag force coefficient for the emerged part of the shell and the dilution of the excurrent siphon jet increase with increasing bed roughness.

    more » « less
  4. Periodic upstream flow disturbances from a bluff body have recently been shown to be able to modulate and annihilate limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) in a downstream aeroelastic wing section under certain conditions. To further investigate these phenomena, we have implemented a controllable wind tunnel disturbance generator to enable quantification of the parameter ranges under which these nonlinear interactions can occur. This disturbance generator, consisting of a pitch-actuated cylinder with an attached splitter plate, can be oscillated to produce a von Karman type wake with vortex shedding frequency equal to the oscillation frequency over a range of frequencies around the natural shedding frequency of the cylinder alone. At vortex shedding frequencies away from the LCO frequency of the wing, forced oscillations were observed in the wing, but the wing did not enter self-sustaining LCOs. However, when disturbances were introduced near the LCO frequency, the initially static downstream wing entered self-sustaining oscillations in the presence of the incoming vortices, and these LCOs persisted when the disturbance generator was stopped. Annihilation of the wing LCOs was also observed disturbance vortices were introduced upstream of the wing in LCO. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract The energy harvesting performance of thick oscillating airfoils is predicted using an inviscid discrete vortex model (DVM). NACA airfoils with different leading-edge geometries are modeled that undergo sinusoidal heaving and pitching with reduced frequencies, k = f c/U∞, in the range 0.06–0.14, where f is the heaving frequency of the foil, c the chord length, and U the freestream velocity. The airfoil pitches about the mid-chord with heaving and pitching amplitudes of h0 = 0.5c and θ0 = 70°, respectively, known to be in the range of peak energy harvesting efficiencies. A vortex shedding initiation criteria is proposed based on the transient local wall stress distribution determined from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and incorporates both timing and location of leading-edge separation. The scaled shedding times are shown to be predicted over the range of reduced frequencies using a timescale based on the leading-edge shear velocity and radius of curvature. The convection velocity of the shed vortices is also modeled based on the reduced frequency to better capture the dynamics of the leading-edge vortex. An empirical trailing-edge separation correction is applied to the transient force results using the effective angle of attack modified to include the pitching component. Impulse theory is applied to the DVM to calculate the transient lift force and compares well with the CFD simulations. Results show that the power output increases with increasing airfoil thickness and is most notable at higher reduced frequencies where the power output efficiency is highest. 
    more » « less