skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on June 1, 2023

Title: Orientation-Controlled Anisotropy in Single Crystals of Quasi-1D BaTiS 3
Low-dimensional materials with chain-like (one-dimensional) or layered (two-dimensional) structures are of significant interest due to their anisotropic electrical, optical, and thermal properties. One material with a chain-like structure, BaTiS3 (BTS), was recently shown to possess giant in-plane optical anisotropy and glass-like thermal conductivity. To understand the origin of these effects, it is necessary to fully characterize the optical, thermal, and electronic anisotropy of BTS. To this end, BTS crystals with different orientations (a- and c-axis orientations) were grown by chemical vapor transport. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to characterize the local structure and electronic anisotropy of BTS. Fourier transform infrared reflection/transmission spectra show a large in-plane optical anisotropy in the a-oriented crystals, while the c-axis oriented crystals were nearly isotropic in-plane. BTS platelet crystals are promising uniaxial materials for infrared optics with their optic axis parallel to the c-axis. The thermal conductivity measurements revealed a thermal anisotropy of ∼4.5 between the c- and a-axis. Time-domain Brillouin scattering showed that the longitudinal sound speed along the two axes is nearly the same, suggesting that the thermal anisotropy is a result of different phonon scattering rates.
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
2122071 2122070
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Chemistry of Materials
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Previously, the infrared permittivity tensor of monoclinic β-Ga 2 O 3 crystals has been determined using ellipsometry reflection measurements from two differently oriented monoclinic β-Ga 2 O 3 crystals with surfaces parallel to (010) and (−201). The (010) surface places the crystallographic a-c plane in the table of the instrument. The permittivity tensor consists of four complex values, and in order to compute it, four or more combinations of measurements are required at selected table rotations and incidence angles. However, the (010) orientation also places the transverse optical (TO) modes with Au symmetry parallel to the z-axis of the instrument, and we find that these modes are not fully excited and, hence, not measurable due to underlying selection rules. This makes additional measurements on surfaces other than (010) necessary. The second orientation has been the (−201) crystal, which places the crystallographic b axis in the plane of the table to access the transverse Au phonons. In prior work, the overall tensor has been determined by combining measurements of the two crystal orientations [Schubert et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 125209 (2016)]. The goal of the work here is to find single crystal orientations for which all TO modes can bemore »determined from measurements. The use of a set of measurements employed for such a single crystal is inextricably linked to the choice of incidence angles and table rotations. Consequently, determining suitable angles for these is linked to the selection of a crystal orientation, which is, therefore, an integral part of the overall goal. The TO contribution to the permittivity strongly dominates at or near the TO mode wavenumber resonances and, therefore, are used in this work to identify suitable orientations for a single crystal. Any such crystal orientation will also provide measurements useful to compute permittivity across the entire measured wavenumber range. In principle, any crystal orientation that does not place the direction of any TO mode at or near the z-axis may be suitable due to the underlying physics and mathematics of the problem. We discuss which of these measurement parameters contain the most sensitivity for the (111) orientation. For accuracy, we seek the best or very good orientations. Our investigation follows a previously demonstrated approach where at a single wavelength, the full tensor of an orthorhombic absorbing crystal was obtained from a low-symmetry surface of stibnite [Schubert and Dollase, Opt. Lett. 27, 2073 (2002)]. We discuss which of these measurement parameters contain the most sensitivity for the (111) orientation. The methods presented here will also be useful for other monoclinic materials as well as other materials of different crystal structures, including orthorhombic and triclinic materials.« less
  2. AlN thin films are enabling significant progress in modern optoelectronics, power electronics, and microelectromechanical systems. The various AlN growth methods and conditions lead to different film microstructures. In this report, phonon scattering mechanisms that impact the cross-plane (κ z ; along the c-axis) and in-plane (κ r ; parallel to the c-plane) thermal conductivities of AlN thin films prepared by various synthesis techniques are investigated. In contrast to bulk single crystal AlN with an isotropic thermal conductivity of ∼330 W/m K, a strong anisotropy in the thermal conductivity is observed in the thin films. The κ z shows a strong film thickness dependence due to phonon-boundary scattering. Electron microscopy reveals the presence of grain boundaries and dislocations that limit the κ r . For instance, oriented films prepared by reactive sputtering possess lateral crystalline grain sizes ranging from 20 to 40 nm that significantly lower the κ r to ∼30 W/m K. Simulation results suggest that the self-heating in AlN film bulk acoustic resonators can significantly impact the power handling capability of RF filters. A device employing an oriented film as the active piezoelectric layer shows an ∼2.5× higher device peak temperature as compared to a device based on an epitaxial film.
  3. Abstract The densification of integrated circuits requires thermal management strategies and high thermal conductivity materials 1–3 . Recent innovations include the development of materials with thermal conduction anisotropy, which can remove hotspots along the fast-axis direction and provide thermal insulation along the slow axis 4,5 . However, most artificially engineered thermal conductors have anisotropy ratios much smaller than those seen in naturally anisotropic materials. Here we report extremely anisotropic thermal conductors based on large-area van der Waals thin films with random interlayer rotations, which produce a room-temperature thermal anisotropy ratio close to 900 in MoS 2 , one of the highest ever reported. This is enabled by the interlayer rotations that impede the through-plane thermal transport, while the long-range intralayer crystallinity maintains high in-plane thermal conductivity. We measure ultralow thermal conductivities in the through-plane direction for MoS 2 (57 ± 3 mW m −1  K −1 ) and WS 2 (41 ± 3 mW m −1  K −1 ) films, and we quantitatively explain these values using molecular dynamics simulations that reveal one-dimensional glass-like thermal transport. Conversely, the in-plane thermal conductivity in these MoS 2 films is close to the single-crystal value. Covering nanofabricated gold electrodes with our anisotropic films prevents overheating of the electrodes and blocks heat frommore »reaching the device surface. Our work establishes interlayer rotation in crystalline layered materials as a new degree of freedom for engineering-directed heat transport in solid-state systems.« less
  4. ZrSe3 with a quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) crystal structure belongs to the transition metal trichalcogenides (TMTCs) family. Owing to its unique optical, electrical, and optoelectrical properties, ZrSe3 is promising for applications in field effect transistors, photodetectors, and thermoelectrics. Compared with extensive studies of the above-mentioned physical properties, the thermal properties of ZrSe3 have not been experimentally investigated. Here, we report the crystal growth and thermal and optical properties of ZrSe3. Millimeter-sized single crystalline ZrSe3 flakes were prepared using a chemical vapor transport method. These flakes could be exfoliated into microribbons by liquid-phase exfoliation. The transmission electron microscope studies suggested that the obtained microribbons were single crystals along the chain axis. ZrSe3 exhibited a specific heat of 0.311 J g−1 K−1 at 300 K, close to the calculated value of the Dulong–Petit limit. The fitting of low-temperature specific heat led to a Debye temperature of 110 K and an average sound velocity of 2122 m s−1. The thermal conductivity of a polycrystalline ZrSe3 sample exhibited a maximum value of 10.4 ± 1.9 W m−1 K−1 at 40 K. The thermal conductivity decreased above 40 K and reached a room-temperature value of 5.4 ± 1.3 W m−1 K−1. The Debye model fitting of themore »solid thermal conductivity agreed well with the experimental data below 200 K but showed a deviation at high temperatures, indicating that optical phonons could substantially contribute to thermal transport at high temperatures. The calculated phonon mean free path decreased with temperatures between 2 and 21 K. The mean free path at 2 K approached 3 μm, which was similar to the grain size of the polycrystalline sample. This work provides useful insights into the preparation and thermal properties of quasi-1D ZrSe3.« less
  5. Thermal anisotropy/isotropy is one of the fundamental thermal transport properties of materials and plays a critical role in a wide range of practical applications. Manipulation of anisotropic to isotropic thermal transport or vice versa is in increasing demand. However, almost all the existing approaches for tuning anisotropy or isotropy focus on structure engineering or materials processing, which is time and cost consuming and irreversible, while little progress has been made with an intact, robust, and reversible method. Motivated by the inherent relationship between interatomic interaction mediated phonon transport and electronic charges, we comprehensively investigate the effect of external electric field on thermal transport in two-dimensional (2D) borophene by performing first-principles calculations along with the phonon Boltzmann transport equation. Under external electric field, the lattice thermal conductivity of borophene in both in-plane directions first increases significantly to peak values with the maximum augmentation factor of 2.82, and the intrinsic anisotropy (the ratio of thermal conductivity along two in-plane directions) is boosted to the highest value of 2.13. After that, thermal conductivities drop down steeply and anisotropy exhibits oscillating decay. With the electric field increasing to 0.4 V Å −1 , the thermal conductivity is dramatically suppressed to 1/40 of the originalmore »value at no electric field. More interestingly, the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity decreases to the minimum value of 1.25, showing almost isotropic thermal transport. Such abnormal anisotropic to isotropic thermal transport transition stems from the large enhancement and suppression of phonon lifetime at moderate and high strength of electric field, respectively, and acts as an amplifying or reducing factor to the thermal conductivity. We further explain the tunability of phonon lifetime of the dominant acoustic mode by an electron localization function. By comparing the electric field-modulated thermal conductivity of borophene with the dielectric constant, it is found that the screened potential resulting from the redistributed charge density leads to phonon renormalization and the modulation of phonon anharmonicity and anisotropy through electric field. Our study paves the way for robust tuning of anisotropy of phonon transport in materials by applying intact, robust, and reversible external electric field without altering their atomic structure and would have a significant impact on emerging applications, such as thermal management of nanoelectronics and thermoelectric energy conversion.« less