Initially, elliptical, quasitwodimensional (2D) fluid vortices can split into multiple pieces if the aspect ratio is sufficiently large due to the growth and saturation of perturbations known as Love modes on the vortex edge. Presented here are experiments and numerical simulations, showing that the aspect ratio threshold for vortex splitting is significantly higher for vortices with realistic, smooth edges than that predicted by a simple “vortex patch” model, where the vorticity is treated as piecewise constant inside a deformable boundary. The experiments are conducted by exploiting the E × B drift dynamics of collisionless, pure electron plasmas in a Penning–Malmberg trap, which closely model 2D vortex dynamics due to an isomorphism between the Drift–Poisson equations describing the plasmas and the Euler equations describing ideal fluids. The simulations use a particleincell method to model the evolution of a set of point vortices. The aspect ratio splitting threshold ranges up to about twice as large as the vortex patch prediction and depends on the edge vorticity gradient. This is thought to be due to spatial Landau damping, which decreases the vortex aspect ratio over time and, thus, stabilizes the Love modes. Near the threshold, asymmetric splitting events are observed in which one of the split products contains much less circulation than the other. These results are relevant to a wide range of quasi2D fluid systems, including geophysical fluids, astrophysical disks, and driftwave eddies in tokamak plasmas.
 Award ID(s):
 2106332
 NSFPAR ID:
 10334018
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 Physics of Plasmas
 Volume:
 29
 Issue:
 5
 ISSN:
 1070664X
 Page Range / eLocation ID:
 052107
 Format(s):
 Medium: X
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
More Like this


Abstract We consider the full three‐dimensional Ginzburg–Landau model of superconductivity with applied magnetic field, in the regime where the intensity of the applied field is close to the ‘first critical field’ at which vortex filaments appear, and in the asymptotics of a small inverse Ginzburg–Landau parameter . This onset of vorticity is directly related to an ‘isoflux problem’ on curves (finding a curve that maximizes the ratio of a magnetic flux by its length), whose study was initiated in [22] and which we continue here. By assuming a nondegeneracy condition for this isoflux problem, which we show holds at least for instance in the case of a ball, we prove that if the intensity of the applied field remains below , the total vorticity remains bounded independently of , with vortex lines concentrating near the maximizer of the isoflux problem, thus extending to the three‐dimensional setting a two‐dimensional result of [28]. We finish by showing an improved estimate on the value of in some specific simple geometries.

In Part 2 of our guide to collisionless fluid models, we concentrate on Landau fluid closures. These closures were pioneered by Hammett and Perkins and allow for the rigorous incorporation of collisionless Landau damping into a fluid framework. It is Landau damping that sharply separates traditional fluid models and collisionless kinetic theory, and is the main reason why the usual fluid models do not converge to the kinetic description, even in the longwavelength lowfrequency limit. We start with a brief introduction to kinetic theory, where we discuss in detail the plasma dispersion function $Z(\unicode[STIX]{x1D701})$ , and the associated plasma response function $R(\unicode[STIX]{x1D701})=1+\unicode[STIX]{x1D701}Z(\unicode[STIX]{x1D701})=Z^{\prime }(\unicode[STIX]{x1D701})/2$ . We then consider a onedimensional (1D) (electrostatic) geometry and make a significant effort to map all possible Landau fluid closures that can be constructed at the fourthorder moment level. These closures for parallel moments have general validity from the largest astrophysical scales down to the Debye length, and we verify their validity by considering examples of the (proton and electron) Landau damping of the ionacoustic mode, and the electron Landau damping of the Langmuir mode. We proceed by considering 1D closures at higherorder moments than the fourth order, and as was concluded in Part 1, this is not possible without Landau fluid closures. We show that it is possible to reproduce linear Landau damping in the fluid framework to any desired precision, thus showing the convergence of the fluid and collisionless kinetic descriptions. We then consider a 3D (electromagnetic) geometry in the gyrotropic (longwavelength lowfrequency) limit and map all closures that are available at the fourthorder moment level. In appendix A, we provide comprehensive tables with Padé approximants of $R(\unicode[STIX]{x1D701})$ up to the eighthpole order, with many given in an analytic form.more » « less

An accurate description of plasma waves is fundamental for the understanding of many plasma phenomena. It is possible to twist plasma waves such that, in addition to having longitudinal motion, they can possess a quantized orbital angular momentum. One such type of plasma wave is the Laguerre–Gaussian mode. Threedimensional numerical particleincell simulations demonstrate the existence of stable longlived plasma waves with orbital angular momentum. These waves can be shown to create large amplitude static magnetic fields with unique twisted longitudinal structures. In this paper, we review the recent progress in studies of helical plasma waves and present a new analytical description of a standing Laguerre–Gaussian plasma wave mode along with 3D particleincell simulation results. The Landau damping of twisted plasma waves shows important differences compared to standard longitudinal plasma wave Landau damping. These effects include an increased damping rate, which is affected by both the focal width and the orbital number of the plasma wave. This increase in the damping rate is of the same order as the thermal correction. Moreover, the direction of momentum picked up by resonant particles from the twisted plasma wave can be significantly altered. By contrast, the radial electric field has a subtle effect on the trajectories of resonant electrons.more » « less

We present a study of the standard plasma physics test, Landau damping, using the ParticleInCell (PIC) algorithm. The Landau damping phenomenon consists of the damping of small oscillations in plasmas without collisions. In the PIC method, a hybrid discretization is constructed with a grid of finitely supported basis functions to represent the electric, magnetic and/or gravitational fields, and a distribution of delta functions to represent the particle field. Approximations to the dispersion relation are found to be inadequate in accurately calculating values for the electric field frequency and damping rate when parameters of the physical system, such as the plasma frequency or thermal velocity, are varied. We present a full derivation and numerical solution for the dispersion relation, and verify the PETSCPIC numerical solutions to the VlasovPoisson for a large range of wave numbers and charge densities.more » « less