This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2023
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- Nature Communications
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- National Science Foundation
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Flexible biocompatible electronic systems that leverage key materials and manufacturing techniques associated with the consumer electronics industry have potential for broad applications in biomedicine and biological research. This study reports scalable approaches to technologies of this type, where thin microscale device components integrate onto flexible polymer substrates in interconnected arrays to provide multimodal, high performance operational capabilities as intimately coupled biointerfaces. Specificially, the material options and engineering schemes summarized here serve as foundations for diverse, heterogeneously integrated systems. Scaled examples incorporate >32,000 silicon microdie and inorganic microscale light-emitting diodes derived from wafer sources distributed at variable pitch spacings and fill factors across large areas on polymer films, at full organ-scale dimensions such as human brain, over ∼150 cm 2 . In vitro studies and accelerated testing in simulated biofluids, together with theoretical simulations of underlying processes, yield quantitative insights into the key materials aspects. The results suggest an ability of these systems to operate in a biologically safe, stable fashion with projected lifetimes of several decades without leakage currents or reductions in performance. The versatility of these combined concepts suggests applicability to many classes of biointegrated semiconductor devices.
Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) have come full-circle in the past 10 years after their demonstration in the early 1990s as the fastest room-temperature semiconductor oscillator, displaying experimental results up to 712 GHz and fmax values exceeding 1.0 THz . Now the RTD is once again the preeminent electronic oscillator above 1.0 THz and is being implemented as a coherent source  and a self-oscillating mixer , amongst other applications. This paper concerns RTD electroluminescence – an effect that has been studied very little in the past 30+ years of RTD development, and not at room temperature. We present experiments and modeling of an n-type In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs double-barrier RTD operating as a cross-gap light emitter at ~300K. The MBE-growth stack is shown in Fig. 1(a). A 15-μm-diam-mesa device was defined by standard planar processing including a top annular ohmic contact with a 5-μm-diam pinhole in the center to couple out enough of the internal emission for accurate free-space power measurements . The emission spectra have the behavior displayed in Fig. 1(b), parameterized by bias voltage (VB). The long wavelength emission edge is at = 1684 nm - close to the In0.53Ga0.47As bandgap energy of Ug ≈ 0.75 eV at 300 K.more »
Metal-halide perovskites, in particular their nanocrystal forms, have emerged as a new generation of light-emitting materials with exceptional optical properties, including narrow emissions covering the whole visible region with high photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of up to near-unity. Remarkable progress has been achieved over the last few years in the areas of materials development and device integration. A variety of synthetic approaches have been established to precisely control the compositions and microstructures of metal-halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) with tunable bandgaps and emission colors. The use of metal-halide perovskite NCs as active materials for optoelectronic devices has been extensively explored. Here, we provide a brief overview of recent advances in the development and application of metal-halide perovskite NCs. From color tuning via ion exchange and manipulation of quantum size effects, to stability enhancement via surface passivation, new chemistry for materials development is discussed. In addition, processes in optoelectronic devices based on metal-halide perovskite NCs, in particular, light-emitting diodes and radiation detectors, will be introduced. Opportunities for future research in metal-halide perovskite NCs are provided as well.
Structural and electronic switching of a single crystal 2D metal-organic framework prepared by chemical vapor deposition
The incorporation of metal-organic frameworks into advanced devices remains a desirable goal, but progress is hindered by difficulties in preparing large crystalline metal-organic framework films with suitable electronic performance. We demonstrate the direct growth of large-area, high quality, and phase pure single metal-organic framework crystals through chemical vapor deposition of a dimolybdenum paddlewheel precursor, Mo2(INA)4. These exceptionally uniform, high quality crystals cover areas up to 8600 µm2and can be grown down to thicknesses of 30 nm. Moreover, scanning tunneling microscopy indicates that the Mo2(INA)4clusters assemble into a two-dimensional, single-layer framework. Devices are readily fabricated from single vapor-phase grown crystals and exhibit reversible 8-fold changes in conductivity upon illumination at modest powers. Moreover, we identify vapor-induced single crystal transitions that are reversible and responsible for 30-fold changes in conductivity of the metal-organic framework as monitored by in situ device measurements. Gas-phase methods, including chemical vapor deposition, show broader promise for the preparation of high-quality molecular frameworks, and may enable their integration into devices, including detectors and actuators.
Modulation of recombination zone position for white perovskite/organic emitter hybrid light-emitting devices
Metal halide perovskites present specific challenges as emitters in large area, surface emission lighting devices. Among these challenges is the vast difference in carrier mobilities between the perovskite and many organic buffer layers typically used in such device fabrication as transport and blocking layers. This can make it difficult to engineer recombination to achieve white emitting devices generally. However, in this work, we introduce unique modulation of excitonic confinement within the perovskite layer of the device stack to control overall placement of the recombination zone. This results in a white light emitter that is bright and highly tunable, providing a path to realize white perovskite related light-emitting devices.