skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on July 1, 2023

Title: Reduced Order Model Hessian Approximations in Newton Methods for Optimal Control
This paper introduces reduced order model (ROM) based Hessian approximations for use in inexact Newton methods for the solution of optimization problems implicitly constrained by a large-scale system, typically a discretization of a partial differential equation (PDE). The direct application of an inexact Newton method to this problem requires the solution of many PDEs per optimization iteration. To reduce the computational complexity, a ROM Hessian approximation is proposed. Since only the Hessian is approximated, but the original objective function and its gradient is used, the resulting inexact Newton method maintains the first-order global convergence property, under suitable assumptions. Thus even computationally inexpensive lower fidelity ROMs can be used, which is different from ROM approaches that replace the original optimization problem by a sequence of ROM optimization problem and typically need to accurately approximate function and gradient information of the original problem. In the proposed approach, the quality of the ROM Hessian approximation determines the rate of convergence, but not whether the method converges. The projection based ROM is constructed from state and adjoint snapshots, and is relatively inexpensive to compute. Numerical examples on semilinear parabolic optimal control problems demonstrate that the proposed approach can lead to substantial savings in terms more » of overall PDE solves required. « less
Authors:
;
Editors:
Beattie, C.A.; Benner, P.; Embree, M.; Gugercin, S.; Lefteriu, S.
Award ID(s):
1819144 1816219
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10345793
Journal Name:
Realization and Model Reduction of Dynamical Systems - A Festschrift in Honor of the 70th Birthday of Thanos Antoulas
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
335 - 351
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Embedding properties of network realizations of dissipative reduced order models Jörn Zimmerling, Mikhail Zaslavsky,Rob Remis, Shasri Moskow, Alexander Mamonov, Murthy Guddati, Vladimir Druskin, and Liliana Borcea Mathematical Sciences Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute https://www.wpi.edu/people/vdruskin Abstract Realizations of reduced order models of passive SISO or MIMO LTI problems can be transformed to tridiagonal and block-tridiagonal forms, respectively, via dierent modications of the Lanczos algorithm. Generally, such realizations can be interpreted as ladder resistor-capacitor-inductor (RCL) networks. They gave rise to network syntheses in the rst half of the 20th century that was at the base of modern electronics design and consecutively to MOR that tremendously impacted many areas of engineering (electrical, mechanical, aerospace, etc.) by enabling ecient compression of the underlining dynamical systems. In his seminal 1950s works Krein realized that in addition to their compressing properties, network realizations can be used to embed the data back into the state space of the underlying continuum problems. In more recent works of the authors Krein's ideas gave rise to so-called nite-dierence Gaussian quadrature rules (FDGQR), allowing to approximately map the ROM state-space representation to its full order continuum counterpart on a judicially chosen grid. Thus, the state variables can be accessed directly from themore »transfer function without solving the full problem and even explicit knowledge of the PDE coecients in the interior, i.e., the FDGQR directly learns" the problem from its transfer function. This embedding property found applications in PDE solvers, inverse problems and unsupervised machine learning. Here we show a generalization of this approach to dissipative PDE problems, e.g., electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation in lossy dispersive media. Potential applications include solution of inverse scattering problems in dispersive media, such as seismic exploration, radars and sonars. To x the idea, we consider a passive irreducible SISO ROM fn(s) = Xn j=1 yi s + σj , (62) assuming that all complex terms in (62) come in conjugate pairs. We will seek ladder realization of (62) as rjuj + vj − vj−1 = −shˆjuj , uj+1 − uj + ˆrj vj = −shj vj , (63) for j = 0, . . . , n with boundary conditions un+1 = 0, v1 = −1, and 4n real parameters hi, hˆi, ri and rˆi, i = 1, . . . , n, that can be considered, respectively, as the equivalent discrete inductances, capacitors and also primary and dual conductors. Alternatively, they can be viewed as respectively masses, spring stiness, primary and dual dampers of a mechanical string. Reordering variables would bring (63) into tridiagonal form, so from the spectral measure given by (62 ) the coecients of (63) can be obtained via a non-symmetric Lanczos algorithm written in J-symmetric form and fn(s) can be equivalently computed as fn(s) = u1. The cases considered in the original FDGQR correspond to either (i) real y, θ or (ii) real y and imaginary θ. Both cases are covered by the Stieltjes theorem, that yields in case (i) real positive h, hˆ and trivial r, rˆ, and in case (ii) real positive h,r and trivial hˆ,rˆ. This result allowed us a simple interpretation of (62) as the staggered nite-dierence approximation of the underlying PDE problem [2]. For PDEs in more than one variables (including topologically rich data-manifolds), a nite-dierence interpretation is obtained via a MIMO extensions in block form, e.g., [4, 3]. The main diculty of extending this approach to general passive problems is that the Stieltjes theory is no longer applicable. Moreover, the tridiagonal realization of a passive ROM transfer function (62) via the ladder network (63) cannot always be obtained in port-Hamiltonian form, i.e., the equivalent primary and dual conductors may change sign [1]. 100 Embedding of the Stieltjes problems, e.g., the case (i) was done by mapping h and hˆ into values of acoustic (or electromagnetic) impedance at grid cells, that required a special coordinate stretching (known as travel time coordinate transform) for continuous problems. Likewise, to circumvent possible non-positivity of conductors for the non-Stieltjes case, we introduce an additional complex s-dependent coordinate stretching, vanishing as s → ∞ [1]. This stretching applied in the discrete setting induces a diagonal factorization, removes oscillating coecients, and leads to an accurate embedding for moderate variations of the coecients of the continuum problems, i.e., it maps discrete coecients onto the values of their continuum counterparts. Not only does this embedding yields an approximate linear algebraic algorithm for the solution of the inverse problems for dissipative PDEs, it also leads to new insight into the properties of their ROM realizations. We will also discuss another approach to embedding, based on Krein-Nudelman theory [5], that results in special data-driven adaptive grids. References [1] Borcea, Liliana and Druskin, Vladimir and Zimmerling, Jörn, A reduced order model approach to inverse scattering in lossy layered media, Journal of Scientic Computing, V. 89, N1, pp. 136,2021 [2] Druskin, Vladimir and Knizhnerman, Leonid, Gaussian spectral rules for the three-point second dierences: I. A two-point positive denite problem in a semi-innite domain, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, V. 37, N 2, pp.403422, 1999 [3] Druskin, Vladimir and Mamonov, Alexander V and Zaslavsky, Mikhail, Distance preserving model order reduction of graph-Laplacians and cluster analysis, Druskin, Vladimir and Mamonov, Alexander V and Zaslavsky, Mikhail, Journal of Scientic Computing, V. 90, N 1, pp 130, 2022 [4] Druskin, Vladimir and Moskow, Shari and Zaslavsky, Mikhail LippmannSchwingerLanczos algorithm for inverse scattering problems, Inverse Problems, V. 37, N. 7, 2021, [5] Mark Adolfovich Nudelman The Krein String and Characteristic Functions of Maximal Dissipative Operators, Journal of Mathematical Sciences, 2004, V 124, pp 49184934 Go back to Plenary Speakers Go back to Speakers Go back« less
  2. Newton's method is usually preferred when solving optimization problems due to its superior convergence properties compared to gradient-based or derivative-free optimization algorithms. However, deriving and computing second-order derivatives needed by Newton's method often is not trivial and, in some cases, not possible. In such cases quasi-Newton algorithms are a great alternative. In this paper, we provide a new derivation of well-known quasi-Newton formulas in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space setting. It is known that quasi-Newton update formulas are solutions to certain variational problems over the space of symmetric matrices. In this paper, we formulate similar variational problems over the space of bounded symmetric operators in Hilbert spaces. By changing the constraints of the variational problem we obtain updates (for the Hessian and Hessian inverse) not only for the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton method but also for Davidon--Fletcher--Powell (DFP), Symmetric Rank One (SR1), and Powell-Symmetric-Broyden (PSB). In addition, for an inverse problem governed by a partial differential equation (PDE), we derive DFP and BFGS ``structured" secant formulas that explicitly use the derivative of the regularization and only approximates the second derivative of the misfit term. We show numerical results that demonstrate the desired mesh-independence property and superior performance of the resulting quasi-Newton methods.
  3. We present an extensible software framework, hIPPYlib, for solution of large-scale deterministic and Bayesian inverse problems governed by partial differential equations (PDEs) with (possibly) infinite-dimensional parameter fields (which are high-dimensional after discretization). hIPPYlib overcomes the prohibitively expensive nature of Bayesian inversion for this class of problems by implementing state-of-the-art scalable algorithms for PDE-based inverse problems that exploit the structure of the underlying operators, notably the Hessian of the log-posterior. The key property of the algorithms implemented in hIPPYlib is that the solution of the inverse problem is computed at a cost, measured in linearized forward PDE solves, that is independent of the parameter dimension. The mean of the posterior is approximated by the MAP point, which is found by minimizing the negative log-posterior with an inexact matrix-free Newton-CG method. The posterior covariance is approximated by the inverse of the Hessian of the negative log posterior evaluated at the MAP point. The construction of the posterior covariance is made tractable by invoking a low-rank approximation of the Hessian of the log-likelihood. Scalable tools for sample generation are also discussed. hIPPYlib makes all of these advanced algorithms easily accessible to domain scientists and provides an environment that expedites the development of newmore »algorithms.« less
  4. Full waveform inversion (FWI) and least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) are popular imaging techniques that can be solved as PDE-constrained optimization problems. Due to the large-scale nature, gradient- and Hessian-based optimization algorithms are preferred in practice to find the optimizer iteratively. However, a balance between the evaluation cost and the rate of convergence needs to be considered. We propose the use of Anderson acceleration (AA), a popular strategy to speed up the convergence of fixed-point iterations, to accelerate a gradient descent method. We show that AA can achieve fast convergence that provides competitive results with some quasi-Newton methods. Independent of the dimensionality of the unknown parameters, the computational cost of implementing the method can be reduced to an extremely lowdimensional least-squares problem, which makes AA an attractive method for seismic inversion.
  5. Abstract. We consider the problem of inferring the basal sliding coefficientfield for an uncertain Stokes ice sheet forward model from syntheticsurface velocity measurements. The uncertainty in the forward modelstems from unknown (or uncertain) auxiliary parameters (e.g., rheologyparameters). This inverse problem is posed within the Bayesianframework, which provides a systematic means of quantifyinguncertainty in the solution. To account for the associated modeluncertainty (error), we employ the Bayesian approximation error (BAE)approach to approximately premarginalize simultaneously over both thenoise in measurements and uncertainty in the forward model. We alsocarry out approximative posterior uncertainty quantification based ona linearization of the parameter-to-observable map centered at themaximum a posteriori (MAP) basal sliding coefficient estimate, i.e.,by taking the Laplace approximation. The MAP estimate is found byminimizing the negative log posterior using an inexact Newtonconjugate gradient method. The gradient and Hessian actions to vectorsare efficiently computed using adjoints. Sampling from theapproximate covariance is made tractable by invoking a low-rankapproximation of the data misfit component of the Hessian. We studythe performance of the BAE approach in the context of three numericalexamples in two and three dimensions. For each example, the basalsliding coefficient field is the parameter of primary interest whichwe seek to infer, and the rheology parameters (e.g., themore »flow ratefactor or the Glen's flow law exponent coefficient field) representso-called nuisance (secondary uncertain) parameters. Our resultsindicate that accounting for model uncertainty stemming from thepresence of nuisance parameters is crucial. Namely our findingssuggest that using nominal values for these parameters, as is oftendone in practice, without taking into account the resulting modelingerror, can lead to overconfident and heavily biased results. We alsoshow that the BAE approach can be used to account for the additionalmodel uncertainty at no additional cost at the online stage.« less