skip to main content

Title: Developing Potential Energy Surfaces for Graphene-Based 2D–3D Interfaces From Modified High-Dimensional Neural Networks for Applications in Energy Storage
Abstract Designing a new heterostructure electrode has many challenges associated with interface engineering. Demanding simulation resources and lack of heterostructure databases continue to be a barrier to understanding the chemistry and mechanics of complex interfaces using simulations. Mixed-dimensional heterostructures composed of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) materials are undisputed next-generation materials for engineered devices due to their changeable properties. The present work computationally investigates the interface between 2D graphene and 3D tin (Sn) systems with density functional theory (DFT) method. This computationally demanding simulation data is further used to develop machine learning (ML)-based potential energy surfaces (PES). The approach to developing PES for complex interface systems in the light of limited data and the transferability of such models has been discussed. To develop PES for graphene-tin interface systems, high-dimensional neural networks (HDNN) are used that rely on atom-centered symmetry function to represent structural information. HDNN are modified to train on the total energies of the interface system rather than atomic energies. The performance of modified HDNN trained on 5789 interface structures of graphene|Sn is tested on new interfaces of the same material pair with varying levels of structural deviations from the training dataset. Root-mean-squared error (RMSE) for test interfaces fall in the range of 0.01–0.45 eV/atom, depending on the structural deviations from the reference training dataset. By avoiding incorrect decomposition of total energy into atomic energies, modified HDNN model is shown to obtain higher accuracy and transferability despite a limited dataset. Improved accuracy in the ML-based modeling approach promises cost-effective means of designing interfaces in heterostructure energy storage systems with higher cycle life and stability.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    The earlier integration of validated Lennard–Jones (LJ) potentials for 8 fcc metals into materials and biomolecular force fields has advanced multiple research fields, for example, metal–electrolyte interfaces, recognition of biomolecules, colloidal assembly of metal nanostructures, alloys, and catalysis. Here we introduce 12-6 and 9-6 LJ parameters for classical all-atom simulations of 10 further fcc metals (Ac, Ca (α), Ce (γ), Es (β), Fe (γ), Ir, Rh, Sr (α), Th (α), Yb (β)) and stainless steel. The parameters reproduce lattice constants, surface energies, water interfacial energies, and interactions with (bio)organic molecules in 0.1 to 5% agreement with experiment, as well as qualitative mechanical properties under standard conditions. Deviations are reduced up to a factor of one hundred in comparison to earlier Lennard–Jones parameters, embedded atom models, and density functional theory. We also explain a quantitative correlation between atomization energies from experiments and surface energies that supports parameter development. The models are computationally very efficient and applicable to an exponential space of alloys. Compatibility with a wide range of force fields such as the Interface force field (IFF), AMBER, CHARMM, COMPASS, CVFF, DREIDING, OPLS-AA, and PCFF enables reliable simulations of nanostructures up to millions of atoms and microsecond time scales. User-friendly model building and input generation are available in the CHARMM-GUI Nanomaterial Modeler. As a limitation, deviations in mechanical properties vary and are comparable to DFT methods. We discuss the incorporation of reactivity and features of the electronic structure to expand the range of applications and further increase the accuracy.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Van der Waals heterostructures formed by stacked 2D materials show exceptional electronic, mechanical, and optical properties. Superlubricity, a condition where atomically flat, incommensurate planes of atoms result in ultra‐low friction, is a prime example enabling, for example, self‐assembly of optically visible graphene nanostructures in air via a sliding auto‐kirigami process. Here, it is demonstrated that a subtle but ubiquitous adsorbate stripe structure found on graphene and graphitic surfaces in ambient conditions remains stable within the interface between twisted graphene layers as they slide over each other. Despite this contamination, the interface retains an exceptional superlubricious state with an estimated upper bound frictional shear strength of 10 kPa, indicating that direct atomic incommensurate contact is not required to achieve ambient superlubricity for 2D materials. The results suggest that any phenomena depending on 2D heterostructure interfaces such as exotic electronic behavior may need to consider the presence of stripe adsorbate structures that remain intercalated.

    more » « less
  3. The contact resistance at metal-metal (W, Mo, Ru, Co, TiN) interfaces is determined using a new method based on blanket superlattice thin films where the resistivity ρ parallel to the interfaces is measured as a function of superlattice period Λ to quantify the electron interface scattering. Epitaxial W(001)/Mo(001) superlattices show a continuous resistivity increase from 7.10 to 8.62 µΩ-cm with decreasing Λ = 50-1.7 nm, indicating a contact resistance of 2.6×10-16 Ω-m2. Ru/Co multilayers show a much more pronounced increase from 15.0 to 47.5 µΩ-cm with Λ = 60-2 nm which is attributed to atomic intermixing leading to an interfacial Ru-Co alloy with a high measured ρ = 61 µΩ-cm and a Ru-Co contact resistance for interfaces deposited at 400 °C of 9.1 ×10-15 Ω-m2. Ru/TiN and Co/TiN interface resistances are dominated by the high ρ for TiN, and are therefore proportional to the TiN thickness. 
    more » « less
  4. Designing new two-dimensional (2D) materials, exploring their unique properties and diverse potential applications are of paramount importance to condensed matter physics and materials science. In this work, we predicted a novel 2D SN 2 monolayer ( S -SN 2 ) by means of density functional theory (DFT) computations. In the S -SN 2 monolayer, each S atom is tetracoordinated with four N atoms, and each N atom bridges two S atoms, thus forming a tri-sublayer structure with square lattice. The monolayer exhibits good stability, as demonstrated by the moderate cohesive energy, all positive phonon modes, and the structural integrity maintained through 10 ps molecular dynamics simulations up to 1000 K. It is an indirect-bandgap semiconductor with high hole mobility, and the bandgap can be tuned by changing the thickness and external strains (the indirect-bandgap to direct-bandgap transition occurs when the biaxial tensile strain reaches 4%). Significantly, it has large Young's modulus and three-dimensional auxetic properties (both in-plane and out-of-plane negative Poisson's ratios). Therefore, the S -SN 2 monolayer holds great potential applications in electronics, photoelectronics and mechanics. 
    more » « less
  5. Germanium alloyed with α-tin (GeSn) transitions to a direct bandgap semiconductor of significance for optoelectronics. It is essential to localize the carriers within the active region for improving the quantum efficiency in a GeSn based laser. In this work, epitaxial GeSn heterostructure material systems were analyzed to determine the band offsets for carrier confinement: (i) a 0.53% compressively strained Ge 0.97 Sn 0.03 /AlAs; (ii) a 0.81% compressively strained Ge 0.94 Sn 0.06 /Ge; and (iii) a lattice matched Ge 0.94 Sn 0.06 /In 0.12 Al 0.88 As. The phonon modes in GeSn alloys were studied using Raman spectroscopy as a function of Sn composition, that showed Sn induced red shifts in wavenumbers of the Ge–Ge longitudinal optical phonon mode peaks. The material parameter b representing strain contribution to Raman shifts of a Ge 0.94 Sn 0.06 alloy was determined as b = 314.81 ± 14 cm −1 . Low temperature photoluminescence measurements were performed at 79 K to determine direct and indirect energy bandgaps of E g,Γ = 0.72 eV and E g,L = 0.66 eV for 0.81% compressively strained Ge 0.94 Sn 0.06 , and E g,Γ = 0.73 eV and E g,L = 0.68 eV for lattice matched Ge 0.94 Sn 0.06 epilayers. Chemical effects of Sn atomic species were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), revealing a shift in Ge 3d core level (CL) spectra towards the lower binding energy affecting the bonding environment. Large valence band offset of Δ E V = 0.91 ± 0.1 eV and conduction band offset of Δ E C,Γ–X = 0.64 ± 0.1 eV were determined from the Ge 0.94 Sn 0.06 /In 0.12 Al 0.88 As heterostructure using CL spectra by XPS measurements. The evaluated band offset was found to be of type-I configuration, needed for carrier confinement in a laser. In addition, these band offset values were compared with the first-principles-based calculated Ge/InAlAs band alignment, and it was found to have arsenic up-diffusion limited to 1 monolayer of epitaxial GeSn overlayer, ruling out the possibility of defects induced modification of band alignment. Furthermore, this lattice matched GeSn/InAlAs heterostructure band offset values were significantly higher than GeSn grown on group IV buffer/substrates. Therefore, a lattice matched GeSn/InAlAs material system has large band offsets offering superior carrier confinement to realize a highly efficient GeSn based photonic device. 
    more » « less