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In this paper, a three‐dimensional numerical solver is developed for suspensions of rigid and soft particles and droplets in viscoelastic and elastoviscoplastic (EVP) fluids. The presented algorithm is designed to allow for the first time three‐dimensional simulations of inertial and turbulent EVP fluids with a large number particles and droplets. This is achieved by combining fast and highly scalable methods such as an FFT‐based pressure solver, with the evolution equation for non‐Newtonian (including EVP) stresses. In this flexible computational framework, the fluid can be modeled by either Oldroyd‐B, neo‐Hookean, FENE‐P, or Saramito EVP models, and the additional equations for the non‐Newtonian stresses are fully coupled with the flow. The rigid particles are discretized on a moving Lagrangian grid, whereas the flow equations are solved on a fixed Eulerian grid. The solid particles are represented by an immersed boundary method with a computationally efficient direct forcing method, allowing simulations of a large numbers of particles. The immersed boundary force is computed at the particle surface and then included in the momentum equations as a body force. The droplets and soft particles on the other hand are simulated in a fully Eulerian framework, the former with a level‐set method to capture the moving interface and the latter with an indicator function. The solver is first validated for various benchmark single‐phase and two‐phase EVP flow problems through comparison with data from the literature. Finally, we present new results on the dynamics of a buoyancy‐driven drop in an EVP fluid.
Venous valves are bicuspidal valves that ensure that blood in veins only flows back to the heart. To prevent retrograde blood flow, the two intraluminal leaflets meet in the center of the vein and occlude the vessel. In fluid‐structure interaction (FSI) simulations of venous valves, the large structural displacements may lead to mesh deteriorations and entanglements, causing instabilities of the solver and, consequently, the numerical solution to diverge. In this paper, we propose an arbitrary Lagrangian‐Eulerian (ALE) scheme for FSI simulations designed to solve these instabilities. A monolithic formulation for the FSI problem is considered, and due to the complexity of the operators, the exact Jacobian matrix is evaluated using automatic differentiation. The method relies on the introduction of a staggered in time velocity to improve stability, and on fictitious springs to model the contact force of the valve leaflets. Because the large structural displacements may compromise the quality of the fluid mesh as well, a smoother fluid displacement, obtained with the introduction of a scaling factor that measures the distance of a fluid element from the valve leaflet tip, guarantees that there are no mesh entanglements in the fluid domain. To further improve stability, a streamline upwind Petrov‐Galerkin (SUPG) method is employed. The proposed ALE scheme is applied to a two‐dimensional (2D) model of a venous valve. The presented simulations show that the proposed method deals well with the large structural displacements of the problem, allowing a reconstruction of the valve behavior in both the opening and closing phase.
Interactions between an evolving solid and inviscid flow can result in substantial computational complexity, particularly in circumstances involving varied boundary conditions between the solid and fluid phases. Examples of such interactions include melting, sublimation, and deflagration, all of which exhibit bidirectional coupling, mass/heat transfer, and topological change of the solid–fluid interface. The diffuse interface method is a powerful technique that has been used to describe a wide range of solid-phase interface-driven phenomena. The implicit treatment of the interface eliminates the need for cumbersome interface tracking, and advances in adaptive mesh refinement have provided a way to sufficiently resolve diffuse interfaces without excessive computational cost. However, the general scale-invariant coupling of these techniques to flow solvers has been relatively unexplored. In this work, a robust method is presented for treating diffuse solid–fluid interfaces with arbitrary boundary conditions. Source terms defined over the diffuse region mimic boundary conditions at the solid–fluid interface, and it is demonstrated that the diffuse length scale has no adverse effects. To show the efficacy of the method, a one-dimensional implementation is introduced and tested for three types of boundaries: mass flux through the boundary, a moving boundary, and passive interaction of the boundary with an incident acoustic wave. Two-dimensional results are presented as well these demonstrate expected behavior in all cases. Convergence analysis is also performed and compared against the sharp-interface solution, and linear convergence is observed. This method lays the groundwork for the extension to viscous flow and the solution of problems involving time-varying mass-flux boundaries.