This study reports different properties of ionospheric perturbations detected to the west and south of the Korean Peninsula after the Hunga‐Tonga volcanic eruption on 15 January 2022. Transient wave‐like total electron content (TEC) modulations and intense irregular TEC perturbations are detected in the west and south of the Korean Peninsula, respectively, about 8 hr after the eruption. The TEC modulations in the west propagate away from the epicenter with a speed of 302 m/s. Their occurrence time, propagation direction and velocity, and alignment with the surface air pressure perturbations indicate the generation of the TEC modulations by Lamb waves generated by the eruption. The strong TEC perturbations and L band scintillations in the south are interpreted in terms of the poleward extension of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs). We demonstrate the association of the EPBs with the volcanic eruption using the EPB occurrence climatology derived from Swarm satellite data.
This paper investigates the local and global ionospheric responses to the 2022 Tonga volcano eruption, using ground‐based Global Navigation Satellite System total electron content (TEC), Swarm in situ plasma density measurements, the Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) data, and ionosonde measurements. The main results are as follows: (a) A significant local ionospheric hole of more than 10 TECU depletion was observed near the epicenter ∼45 min after the eruption, comprising of several cascading TEC decreases and quasi‐periodic oscillations. Such a deep local plasma hole was also observed by space‐borne in situ measurements, with an estimated horizontal radius of 10–15° and persisted for more than 10 hr in ICON‐IVM ion density profiles until local sunrise. (b) Pronounced post‐volcanic evening equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were continuously observed across the wide Asia‐Oceania area after the arrival of volcano‐induced waves; these caused a
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- DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
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- Journal Name:
- Space Weather
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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