skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: Structural Compression of Convolutional Neural Networks with Applications in Interpretability
Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been successful in many tasks in machine vision, however, millions of weights in the form of thousands of convolutional filters in CNNs make them difficult for human interpretation or understanding in science. In this article, we introduce a greedy structural compression scheme to obtain smaller and more interpretable CNNs, while achieving close to original accuracy. The compression is based on pruning filters with the least contribution to the classification accuracy or the lowest Classification Accuracy Reduction (CAR) importance index. We demonstrate the interpretability of CAR-compressed CNNs by showing that our algorithm prunes filters with visually redundant functionalities such as color filters. These compressed networks are easier to interpret because they retain the filter diversity of uncompressed networks with an order of magnitude fewer filters. Finally, a variant of CAR is introduced to quantify the importance of each image category to each CNN filter. Specifically, the most and the least important class labels are shown to be meaningful interpretations of each filter.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1741340
NSF-PAR ID:
10373938
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Big Data
Volume:
4
ISSN:
2624-909X
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We propose a data-driven approach for deep convolutional neural network compression that achieves high accuracy with high throughput and low memory requirements. Current network compression methods either find a low-rank factorization of the features that requires more memory, or select only a subset of features by pruning entire filter channels. We propose the Cascaded Projection (CaP) compression method that projects the output and input filter channels of successive layers to a unified low dimensional space based on a low-rank projection. We optimize the projection to minimize classification loss and the difference between the next layer’s features in the compressed and uncompressed networks. To solve this non-convex optimization problem we propose a new optimization method of a proxy matrix using back propagation and Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) with geometric constraints. Our cascaded projection approach leads to improvements in all critical areas of network compression: high accuracy, low memory consumption, low parameter count and high processing speed. The proposed CaP method demonstrates state-of-the-art results compressing VGG16 and ResNet networks with over 4× reduction in the number of computations and excellent performance in top-5 accuracy on the ImageNet dataset before and after fine-tuning. 
    more » « less
  2. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are becoming increasingly deeper, wider, and non-linear because of the growing demand on prediction accuracy and analysis quality. The wide and deep CNNs, however, require a large amount of computing resources and processing time. Many previous works have studied model pruning to improve inference performance, but little work has been done for effectively reducing training cost. In this paper, we propose ClickTrain: an efficient and accurate end-to-end training and pruning framework for CNNs. Different from the existing pruning-during-training work, ClickTrain provides higher model accuracy and compression ratio via fine-grained architecture-preserving pruning. By leveraging pattern-based pruning with our proposed novel accurate weight importance estimation, dynamic pattern generation and selection, and compiler-assisted computation optimizations, ClickTrain generates highly accurate and fast pruned CNN models for direct deployment without any extra time overhead, compared with the baseline training. ClickTrain also reduces the end-to-end time cost of the pruning-after-training method by up to 2.3X with comparable accuracy and compression ratio. Moreover, compared with the state-of-the-art pruning-during-training approach, ClickTrain provides significant improvements both accuracy and compression ratio on the tested CNN models and datasets, under similar limited training time. 
    more » « less
  3. There have been many recent attempts to extend the successes of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) from 2-dimensional (2D) image classification to 3-dimensional (3D) video recognition by exploring 3D CNNs. Considering the emerging growth of mobile or Internet of Things (IoT) market, it is essential to investigate the deployment of 3D CNNs on edge devices. Previous works have implemented standard 3D CNNs (C3D) on hardware platforms, however, they have not exploited model compression for acceleration of inference. This work proposes a hardware-aware pruning approach that can fully adapt to the loop tiling technique of FPGA design and is applied onto a novel 3D network called R(2+1)D. Leveraging the powerful ADMM, the proposed pruning method achieves simultaneous high accuracy and significant acceleration of computation on FPGA. With layer-wise pruning rates up to 10× and negligible accuracy loss, the pruned model is implemented on a Xilinx ZCU102 FPGA board, where the pruned model achieves 2.6× speedup compared with the unpruned version, and 2.3× speedup and 2.3× power efficiency improvement compared with state-of-the-art FPGA implementation of C3D. 
    more » « less
  4. Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are limited in their propagation operators. In many cases, these operators often contain non-negative elements only and are shared across channels, limiting the expressiveness of GNNs. Moreover, some GNNs suffer from over-smoothing, limiting their depth. On the other hand, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) can learn diverse propagation filters, and phenomena like over-smoothing are typically not apparent in CNNs. In this paper, we bridge these gaps by incorporating trainable channel-wise weighting factors ω to learn and mix multiple smoothing and sharpening propagation operators at each layer. Our generic method is called ωGNN, and is easy to implement. We study two variants: ωGCN and ωGAT. For ωGCN, we theoretically analyze its behavior and the impact of ω on the obtained node features. Our experiments confirm these findings, demonstrating and explaining how both variants do not over-smooth. Additionally, we experiment with 15 real-world datasets on node- and graph-classification tasks, where our ωGCN and ωGAT perform on par with state-of-the-art methods. 
    more » « less
  5. Modern neural networks have revolutionized the fields of computer vision (CV) and Natural Language Processing (NLP). They are widely used for solving complex CV tasks and NLP tasks such as image classification, image generation, and machine translation. Most state-of-the-art neural networks are over-parameterized and require a high computational cost. One straightforward solution is to replace the layers of the networks with their low-rank tensor approximations using different tensor decomposition methods. This article reviews six tensor decomposition methods and illustrates their ability to compress model parameters of convolutional neural networks (CNNs), recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and Transformers. The accuracy of some compressed models can be higher than the original versions. Evaluations indicate that tensor decompositions can achieve significant reductions in model size, run-time and energy consumption, and are well suited for implementing neural networks on edge devices. 
    more » « less