Perceiving and manipulating 3D articulated objects (e.g., cabinets, doors) in human environments is an important yet challenging task for future home-assistant robots. The space of 3D articulated objects is exceptionally rich in their myriad semantic categories, diverse shape geometry, and complicated part functionality. Previous works mostly abstract kinematic structure with estimated joint parameters and part poses as the visual representations for manipulating 3D articulated objects. In this paper, we propose object-centric actionable visual priors as a novel perception-interaction handshaking point that the perception system outputs more actionable guidance than kinematic structure estimation, by predicting dense geometry-aware, interaction-aware, and task-aware visual action affordance and trajectory proposals. We design an interaction-for-perception framework VAT-Mart to learn such actionable visual representations by simultaneously training a curiosity-driven reinforcement learning policy exploring diverse interaction trajectories and a perception module summarizing and generalizing the explored knowledge for pointwise predictions among diverse shapes. Experiments prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach using the large-scale PartNet-Mobility dataset in SAPIEN environment and show promising generalization capabilities to novel test shapes, unseen object categories, and real-world data.
O2O-Afford: Annotation-Free Large-Scale Object-Object Affordance Learning
Contrary to the vast literature in modeling, perceiving, and understanding agent-object (e.g., human-object, hand-object, robot-object) interaction in computer vision and robotics, very few past works have studied the task of object-object interaction, which also plays an important role in robotic manipulation and planning tasks. There is a rich space of object-object interaction scenarios in our daily life, such as placing an object on a messy tabletop, fitting an object inside a drawer, pushing an object using a tool, etc. In this paper, we propose a unified affordance learning framework to learn object-object interaction for various tasks. By constructing four object-object interaction task environments using physical simulation (SAPIEN) and thousands of ShapeNet models with rich geometric diversity, we are able to conduct large-scale object-object affordance learning without the need for human annotations or demonstrations. At the core of technical contribution, we propose an object-kernel point convolution network to reason about detailed interaction between two objects. Experiments on large-scale synthetic data and real-world data prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Conference on Robot Learning (CoRL) 2021
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Abstract— A core capability of robots is to reason about mul- tiple objects under uncertainty. Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs) provide a means of reasoning under uncertainty for sequential decision making, but are computationally intractable in large domains. In this paper, we propose Object-Oriented POMDPs (OO-POMDPs), which represent the state and observation spaces in terms of classes and objects. The structure afforded by OO-POMDPs support a factorization of the agent’s belief into independent object distributions, which enables the size of the belief to scale linearly versus exponentially in the number of objects. We formulate a novel Multi-Object Search (MOS) task as an OO-POMDP for mobile robotics domains in which the agent must find the locations of multiple objects. Our solution exploits the structure of OO-POMDPs by featuring human language to selectively update the belief at task onset. Using this structure, we develop a new algorithm for efficiently solving OO-POMDPs: Object- Oriented Partially Observable Monte-Carlo Planning (OO- POMCP). We show that OO-POMCP with grounded language commands is sufficient for solving challenging MOS tasks both in simulation and on a physical mobile robot.
AdaAfford: Learning to Adapt Manipulation Affordance for 3D Articulated Objects via Few-shot InteractionsPerceiving and interacting with 3D articulated objects, such as cabinets, doors, and faucets, pose particular challenges for future home-assistant robots performing daily tasks in human environments. Besides parsing the articulated parts and joint parameters, researchers recently advocate learning manipulation affordance over the input shape geometry which is more task-aware and geometrically fine-grained. However, taking only passive observations as inputs, these methods ignore many hidden but important kinematic constraints (e.g., joint location and limits) and dynamic factors (e.g., joint friction and restitution), therefore losing significant accuracy for test cases with such uncertainties. In this paper, we propose a novel framework, named AdaAfford, that learns to perform very few test-time interactions for quickly adapting the affordance priors to more accurate instance-specific posteriors. We conduct large-scale experiments using the PartNet-Mobility dataset and prove that our system performs better than baselines.
Visually-Grounded Library of Behaviors for Manipulating Diverse Objects across Diverse Configurations and ViewsWe propose a visually-grounded library of behaviors approach for learning to manipulate diverse objects across varying initial and goal configurations and camera placements. Our key innovation is to disentangle the standard image-to-action mapping into two separate modules that use different types of perceptual input:(1) a behavior selector which conditions on intrinsic and semantically-rich object appearance features to select the behaviors that can successfully perform the desired tasks on the object in hand, and (2) a library of behaviors each of which conditions on extrinsic and abstract object properties, such as object location and pose, to predict actions to execute over time. The selector uses a semantically-rich 3D object feature representation extracted from images in a differential end-to-end manner. This representation is trained to be view-invariant and affordance-aware using self-supervision, by predicting varying views and successful object manipulations. We test our framework on pushing and grasping diverse objects in simulation as well as transporting rigid, granular, and liquid food ingredients in a real robot setup. Our model outperforms image-to-action mappings that do not factorize static and dynamic object properties. We further ablate the contribution of the selector's input and show the benefits of the proposed view-predictive, affordance-aware 3D visual object representations.
To perform manipulation tasks in the real world, robots need to operate on objects with various shapes, sizes and without access to geometric models. To achieve this it is often infeasible to train monolithic neural network policies across such large variations in object properties. Towards this generalization challenge, we propose to learn modular task policies which compose object-centric task-axes controllers. These task-axes controllers are parameterized by properties associated with underlying objects in the scene. We infer these controller parameters directly from visual input using multi- view dense correspondence learning. Our overall approach provides a simple and yet powerful framework for learning manipulation tasks. We empirically evaluate our approach on 3 different manipulation tasks and show its ability to generalize to large variance in object size, shape and geometry.