skip to main content


Title: Waveform uncertainty quantification and interpretation for gravitational-wave astronomy
Abstract

We demonstrate how to quantify the frequency-domain amplitude and phase accuracy of waveform models,δAandδφ, in a form that could be marginalized over in gravitational-wave inference using techniques currently applied for quantifying calibration uncertainty. For concreteness, waveform uncertainties affecting neutron-star inspiral measurements are considered, and post-hoc error estimates from a variety of waveform models are made by comparing time-domain and frequency-domain analytic models with multiple-resolution numerical simulations. These waveform uncertainty estimates can be compared to GW170817 calibration envelopes or to Advanced LIGO and Virgo calibration goals. Signal-specific calibration and waveform uncertainties are compared to statistical fluctuations in gravitational-wave observatories, giving frequency-dependent modeling requirements for detectors such as Advanced LIGO Plus, Cosmic Explorer, or Einstein Telescope. Finally, the distribution of waveform error for the GW170817 posterior is computed from tidal models and compared to the constraints onδφorδAfrom GWTC-1 by Edelmanet al.In general,δφandδAcan also be interpreted in terms of unmodeled astrophysical energy transfer within or from the source system.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
2110441
NSF-PAR ID:
10415585
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Publisher / Repository:
IOP Publishing
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Classical and Quantum Gravity
Volume:
40
Issue:
13
ISSN:
0264-9381
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Article No. 135002
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Environmental seismic disturbances limit the sensitivity of LIGO gravitational wave detectors. Trains near the LIGO Livingston detector produce low frequency (0.5–10Hz) ground noise that couples into the gravitational wave sensitive frequency band (10–100Hz) through light reflected in mirrors and other surfaces. We investigate the effect of trains during the Advanced LIGO third observing run, and propose a method to search for narrow band seismic frequencies responsible for contributing to increases in scattered light. Through the use of the linear regression tool Lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) and glitch correlations, we identify the most common seismic frequencies that correlate with increases in detector noise as 0.6–0.8Hz, 1.7–1.9Hz, 1.8–2.0Hz, and 2.3–2.5Hzin the LIGO Livingston corner station.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    We present the second data release of gravitational waveforms from binary neutron star (BNS) merger simulations performed by the Computational Relativity (CoRe) collaboration. The current database consists of 254 different BNS configurations and a total of 590 individual numerical-relativity simulations using various grid resolutions. The released waveform data contain the strain and the Weyl curvature multipoles up to=m=4. They span a significant portion of the mass, mass-ratio, spin and eccentricity parameter space and include targeted configurations to the events GW170817 and GW190425.CoResimulations are performed with 18 different equations of state, seven of which are finite temperature models, and three of which account for non-hadronic degrees of freedom. About half of the released data are computed with high-order hydrodynamics schemes for tens of orbits to merger; the other half is computed with advanced microphysics. We showcase a standard waveform error analysis and discuss the accuracy of the database in terms of faithfulness. We present ready-to-use fitting formulas for equation of state-insensitive relations at merger (e.g. merger frequency), luminosity peak, and post-merger spectrum.

     
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    We present a measurement of the Hubble ConstantH0using the gravitational wave event GW190412, an asymmetric binary black hole merger detected by LIGO/Virgo, as a dark standard siren. This event does not have an electromagnetic counterpart, so we use the statistical standard siren method and marginalize over potential host galaxies from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey. GW190412 is well-localized to 12 deg2(90% credible interval), so it is promising for a dark siren analysis. The dark siren value forH0=85.433.9+29.1km s−1 Mpc−1, with a posterior shape that is consistent with redshift overdensities. When combined with the bright standard siren measurement from GW170817 we recoverH0=77.965.03+23.0km s−1 Mpc−1, consistent with both early and late-time Universe measurements ofH0. This work represents the first standard siren analysis performed with DESI data, and includes the most complete spectroscopic sample used in a dark siren analysis to date.

     
    more » « less
  4. An advanced LIGO and Virgo’s third observing run brought another binary neutron star merger (BNS) and the first neutron-star black hole mergers. While no confirmed kilonovae were identified in conjunction with any of these events, continued improvements of analyses surrounding GW170817 allow us to project constraints on the Hubble Constant (H0), the Galactic enrichment fromr-process nucleosynthesis, and ultra-dense matter possible from forthcoming events. Here, we describe the expected constraints based on the latest expected event rates from the international gravitational-wave network and analyses of GW170817. We show the expected detection rate of gravitational waves and their counterparts, as well as how sensitive potential constraints are to the observed numbers of counterparts. We intend this analysis as support for the community when creating scientifically driven electromagnetic follow-up proposals. During the next observing run O4, we predict an annual detection rate of electromagnetic counterparts from BNS of0.430.26+0.58(1.971.2+2.68) for the Zwicky Transient Facility (Rubin Observatory).

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    The best upper limit for the electron electric dipole moment was recently set by the ACME collaboration. This experiment measures an electron spin-precession in a cold beam of ThO molecules in their metastableH(3Δ1)state. Improvement in the statistical and systematic uncertainties is possible with more efficient use of molecules from the source and better magnetometry in the experiment, respectively. Here, we report measurements of several relevant properties of the long-livedQ(3Δ2)state of ThO, and show that this state is a very useful resource for both these purposes. TheQstate lifetime is long enough that its decay during the time of flight in the ACME beam experiment is negligible. The large electric dipole moment measured for theQstate, giving rise to a large linear Stark shift, is ideal for an electrostatic lens that increases the fraction of molecules detected downstream. The measured magnetic moment of theQstate is also large enough to be used as a sensitive co-magnetometer in ACME. Finally, we show that theQstate has a large transition dipole moment to theC(1Π1)state, which allows for efficient population transfer between the ground stateX(1Σ+)and theQstate viaXCQStimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP). We demonstrate 90 % STIRAP transfer efficiency. In the course of these measurements, we also determine the magnetic moment ofCstate, theXCtransition dipole moment, and branching ratios of decays from theCstate.

     
    more » « less