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Title: Atmospheric Modeling Study on Convection-Triggered Teleconnections Driving the Summer North American Dipole

The summer North American dipole (NAD) is a pattern of climate variability linked to variations in boreal forest seed production and migration of seed-eating birds. This is a modeling investigation of two teleconnections identified as drivers of the NAD in prior observational work: 1) tropically sourced atmospheric Rossby waves associated with anomalies in the phase distribution of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) (i.e., phases 1 and 6 are anomalously prominent), and 2) a pan-Pacific atmospheric Rossby wave linked to East Asian monsoonal (EAM) convection. Sea surface temperature (SST) boundary forcing experiments were conducted with the Community Earth System Model 2 (CESM2) to trigger convection patterns that align with those observed during EAM and nonuniform phase distributions of MJO. For the EAM case, an El Niño–like SST dipole pattern combined with cool southern Japan SST forcing produced a convection and jet stream shift anomaly over East Asia and the northern Pacific with a positive NAD pattern downstream over North America, similar to the observed pattern when precipitation over East Asia (PEA) is relatively high. A companion experiment with only ENSO-like SST forcing also produced the NAD but featured a different structure over the Eurasian continent with a response resembling the summer east Atlantic (SEA) pattern over eastern North America and the eastern Atlantic. Simulation results suggest that the southern Japan SST forcing region has a secondary importance in triggering the NAD, producing only a somewhat NAD-like pattern by itself and only slightly improving the NAD produced by ENSO-like forcing. Simulations using SST forcing to induce seasonal convection anomalies with spatial patterns similar to anomalously frequent occurrence of MJO phase 1 (phase 6) produced circulation response patterns resembling the positive NAD (negative NAD).

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Award ID(s):
1926428 1926221
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Publisher / Repository:
American Meteorological Society
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Climate
Medium: X Size: p. 6991-7003
["p. 6991-7003"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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