Dual-comb spectroscopy has been proven beneficial in molecular characterization but remains challenging in the mid-infrared region due to difficulties in sources and efficient photodetection. Here we introduce cross-comb spectroscopy, in which a mid-infrared comb is upconverted via sum-frequency generation with a near-infrared comb of a shifted repetition rate and then interfered with a spectral extension of the near-infrared comb. We measure CO2absorption around 4.25 µm with a 1-µm photodetector, exhibiting a 233-cm−1instantaneous bandwidth, 28000 comb lines, a single-shot signal-to-noise ratio of 167 and a figure of merit of 2.4 × 106Hz1/2. We show that cross-comb spectroscopy can have superior signal-to-noise ratio, sensitivity, dynamic range, and detection efficiency compared to other dual-comb-based methods and mitigate the limits of the excitation background and detector saturation. This approach offers an adaptable and powerful spectroscopic method outside the well-developed near-IR region and opens new avenues to high-performance frequency-comb-based sensing with wavelength flexibility.
Dual-comb interferometry harnesses the interference of two laser frequency combs to provide unprecedented capability in spectroscopy applications. In the past decade, the state-of-the-art systems have reached a point where the signal-to-noise ratio per unit acquisition time is fundamentally limited by shot noise from vacuum fluctuations. To address the issue, we propose an entanglement-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy protocol that leverages quantum resources to significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio performance. To analyze the performance of real systems, we develop a quantum model of dual-comb spectroscopy that takes practical noises into consideration. Based on this model, we propose quantum combs with side-band entanglement around each comb lines to suppress the shot noise in heterodyne detection. Our results show significant quantum advantages in the uW to mW power range, making this technique particularly attractive for biological and chemical sensing applications. Furthermore, the quantum comb can be engineered using nonlinear optics and promises near-term experimentation.more » « less
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Nature Publishing Group
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- npj Quantum Information
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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