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Title: Multifunctional interface between integrated photonics and free space
The combination of photonic integrated circuits and free-space metaoptics has the ability to untie technological knots that require advanced light manipulation due to their conjoined ability to achieve strong light–matter interaction via wave-guiding light over a long distance and shape them via large space-bandwidth product. Rapid prototyping of such a compound system requires component interchangeability. This represents a functional challenge in terms of fabrication and alignment of high-performance optical systems. Here, we report a flexible and interchangeable interface between a photonic integrated circuit and the free space using an array of low-loss metaoptics and demonstrate multifunctional beam shaping at a wavelength of 780 nm. We show that robust and high-fidelity operation of the designed optical functions can be achieved without prior precise characterization of the free-space input nor stringent alignment between the photonic integrated chip and the metaoptics chip. A diffraction limited spot of ∼3 μm for a hyperboloid metalens of numerical aperture 0.15 is achieved despite an input Gaussian elliptical deformation of up to 35% and misalignments of the components of up to 20 μm. A holographic image with a peak signal-to-noise ratio of >10 dB is also reported.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2134345
NSF-PAR ID:
10473526
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
SPIE
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Advanced Photonics Nexus
Volume:
2
Issue:
03
ISSN:
2791-1519
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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A 15-μm-diam-mesa device was defined by standard planar processing including a top annular ohmic contact with a 5-μm-diam pinhole in the center to couple out enough of the internal emission for accurate free-space power measurements [4]. The emission spectra have the behavior displayed in Fig. 1(b), parameterized by bias voltage (VB). The long wavelength emission edge is at  = 1684 nm - close to the In0.53Ga0.47As bandgap energy of Ug ≈ 0.75 eV at 300 K. The spectral peaks for VB = 2.8 and 3.0 V both occur around  = 1550 nm (h = 0.75 eV), so blue-shifted relative to the peak of the “ideal”, bulk InGaAs emission spectrum shown in Fig. 1(b) [5]. These results are consistent with the model displayed in Fig. 1(c), whereby the broad emission peak is attributed to the radiative recombination between electrons accumulated on the emitter side, and holes generated on the emitter side by interband tunneling with current density Jinter. 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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). 
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