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Title: Multiply robust estimators in longitudinal studies with missing data under control-based imputation

Longitudinal studies are often subject to missing data. The recent guidance from regulatory agencies, such as the ICH E9(R1) addendum addresses the importance of defining a treatment effect estimand with the consideration of intercurrent events. Jump-to-reference (J2R) is one classical control-based scenario for the treatment effect evaluation, where the participants in the treatment group after intercurrent events are assumed to have the same disease progress as those with identical covariates in the control group. We establish new estimators to assess the average treatment effect based on a proposed potential outcomes framework under J2R. Various identification formulas are constructed, motivating estimators that rely on different parts of the observed data distribution. Moreover, we obtain a novel estimator inspired by the efficient influence function, with multiple robustness in the sense that it achieves n1/2-consistency if any pairs of multiple nuisance functions are correctly specified, or if the nuisance functions converge at a rate not slower than n−1/4 when using flexible modeling approaches. The finite-sample performance of the proposed estimators is validated in simulation studies and an antidepressant clinical trial.

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Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
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Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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