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  1. In this paper, we report the molecular beam epitaxy-grown InGaN-quantum disks embedded within selective area epitaxy of GaN nanowires with both Ga- and N-polarities. A detailed comparative analysis of these two types of nanostructures is also provided. Compared to Ga-polar nanowires, N-polar nanowires are found to exhibit a higher vertical growth rate, flatter top, and reduced lateral overgrowth. InGaN quantum disk-related optical emission is observed from nanowires with both polarities; however, the N-polar structures inherently emit at longer wavelengths due to higher indium incorporation. Considering that N-polar nanowires offer more compelling geometry control compared to Ga-polar ones, we focus on the theoretical analysis of only N-polar structures to realize high-performance quantum emitters. A single nanowire-level analysis was performed, and the effects of nanowire diameter, taper length, and angle on guided modes, light extraction, and far-field emission were investigated. These findings highlight the importance of tailoring nanowire geometry and eventually optimizing the growth processes of III-nitride nanostructures.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  2. Abstract

    This paper presents the design, material growth and fabrication of AlGaN laser structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Considering hole transport to be the major challenge, our ultraviolet-A diode laser structures have a compositionally graded transparent tunnel junction, resulting in superior hole injection and a low contact resistance. By optimizing active region thickness, a five-fold improvement in photoluminescence intensity is obtained compared to that of our own non-optimized test structures. The electrical and optical characteristics of processed devices demonstrate only spontaneous emission with a peak wavelength at 354 nm. The devices operate up to a continuous-wave current density of 11.1 kA cm−2at room temperature, which is the highest reported for laser structures grown on AlGaN templates. Additionally, they exhibit a record-low voltage drop of 8.5 V to achieve this current density.

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  3. Abstract In this paper, we report, for the first time, a theoretical study on passive photonic devices including optical power splitters/combiners and grating couplers (GCs) operating at non-telecom wavelengths above 2 µ m in a monolithic GaSb platform. Passive components were designed to operate, in particular, at around 2.6 µ m for monolithic integration with active photonic devices on the III–V gallium antimonide material platform. The three popular types of splitters/combiners such as directional couplers, multimode interferometer-, and Y-branch-couplers were theoretically investigated. Based on our optimized design and rigorous analysis, fabrication-compatible 1 × 2 optical power splitters with less than 0.12 dB excess losses, large spectral bandwidth, and a 50:50 splitting ratio are achieved. For fiber-to-chip coupling, we also report the design of GCs with an outcoupling efficiency of ∼29% at 2.56 μ m and a 3 dB bandwidth of 80 nm. The results represent a significant step towards developing a complete functional photonic integrated circuits at mid-wave infrared wavelengths. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  4. Ultra-violet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) and lasers based on the III-Nitride material system are very promising since they enable compact, safe, and efficient solid-state sources of UV light for a range of applications. The primary challenges for UV LEDs are related to the poor conductivity of p-AlGaN layers and the low light extraction efficiency of LED structures. Tunnel junction-based UV LEDs provide a distinct and unique pathway to eliminate several challenges associated with UV LEDs1-4. In this work, we present for the first time, a reversed-polarization (p-down) AlGaN based UV-LED utilizing bottom tunnel junction (BTJ) design. We show that compositional grading enables us to achieve the lowest reported voltage drop of 1.1 V at 20 A/cm2 among transparent AlGaN based tunnel junctions at this Al-composition. Compared to conventional LED design, a p-down structure offers lower voltage drop because the depletion barrier for both holes and electrons is lower due to polarization fields aligning with the depletion field. Furthermore, the bottom tunnel junction also allows us to use polarization grading to realize better p- and n-type doping to improve tunneling transport. The epitaxial structure of the UV-LED was grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) on metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-grown n-type Al0.3Ga0.7N templates. The transparent TJ was grown using graded n++-Al0.3Ga0.7N→ n++-Al0.4Ga0.6N (Si=3×1020 cm-3) and graded p++-Al0.4Ga0.6N →p++-Al0.3Ga0.7N (Mg=1×1020 cm-3) to take advantage of induced 3D polarization charges. The high number of charges at the tunnel junction region leads to lower depletion width and efficient hole injection to the p-type layer. The UV LED active region consists of three 2.5 nm Al0.2Ga0.8N quantum wells and 7 nm Al0.3Ga0.6N quantum barriers followed by 12 nm of p- Al0.46Ga0.64N electron blocking layer (EBL). The active region was grown on top of the tunnel junction. A similar LED with p-up configuration was also grown to compare the electrical performance. The surface morphology examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows smooth growth features with a surface roughness of 1.9 nm. The dendritic features on the surface are characteristic of high Si doping on the surface. The composition of each layer was extracted from the scan by high resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD). The electrical characteristics of a device show a voltage drop of 4.9 V at 20 A/cm2, which corresponds to a tunnel junction voltage drop of ~ 1.1 V. This is the best lowest voltage for transparent 30% AlGaN tunnel junctions to-date and is comparable with the lowest voltage drop reported previously on non-transparent (InGaN-based) tunnel junctions at similar Al mole fraction AlGaN. On-wafer electroluminescence measurements on patterned light-emitting diodes showed single peak emission wavelength of 325 nm at 100 A/cm2 which corresponds to Al0.2Ga0.8N, confirming that efficient hole injection was achieved within the structure. The device exhibits a wavelength shift from 330 nm to 325 nm with increasing current densities from 10A/cm2 to 100A/cm2. In summary, we have demonstrated a fully transparent bottom AlGaN homojunction tunnel junction that enables p-down reversed polarization ultraviolet light emitting diodes, and has very low voltage drop at the tunnel junction. This work could enable new flexibility in the design of future III-Nitride ultraviolet LEDs and lasers. 
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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 7, 2024
  6. Abstract

    In this work, we demonstrate two-junction UV LEDs enabled by transparent tunnel junctions. Low voltage-drop tunnel junctions were realized in Al0.3Ga0.7N layers through a combination of high doping and compositional grading. Capacitance and current–voltage measurements confirmed the operation of two junctions in series. The voltage drop of the two-junction LED was 2.1 times that of an equivalent single-junction LED, and the two-junction LED had higher external quantum efficiency (147%) than the single junction.

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  7. Strassburg, Martin ; Kim, Jong Kyu ; Krames, Michael R. (Ed.)
    AlGaN-based ultra-violet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) are promising for a range of applications, including water purification, air disinfection and medical sensing. However, widespread adoption of UV LEDs is limited by the poor device efficiency. This has been attributed to the strong internal light absorption and poor electrical injection efficiency for the conventional UV LED structures, which typically use an absorbing p-GaN layer for p-type contact. Recent development of ultra-wide banggap AlGaN tunnel junctions enabled a novel UV LED design with the absence of the absorbing p-GaN contact layer. In this presentation, we will discuss recent progress of the AlGaN tunnel junctions and the development of tunnel junction-based UV LEDs, and discuss the challenges and future perspectives for the realization of high power, high efficiency UV LEDs. 
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  8. Ultra-violet (UV) light emitting diodes operating at 339 nm using transparent interband tunnel junctions are reported. Tunneling-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on 30% Al-content AlGaN layers. A low tunnel junction voltage drop is obtained through the use of compositionally graded n and p-type layers in the tunnel junction, which enhance hole density and tunneling rates. The transparent tunnel junction-based UV LED reported here show a low voltage drop of 5.55 V at 20 A/cm2 and an on-wafer external quantum efficiency of 1.02% at 80 A/cm2. 
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  9. Molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaN/AlGaN-based active regions were optimized by varying quantum-well widths to yield increased photoluminescence intensity at UV-A wavelengths. The optimized gain medium was then used in electrically-pumped laser structures with transparent tunnel junctions.

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  10. In this study, we report the length dependence of thermal conductivity ( k ) of zinc blende-structured Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) and Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) for length scales between 10 nm and 10 μm using first-principles computations, based on density-functional theory. The k value of ZnSe is computed to decrease significantly from 22.9 W m −1 K −1 to 1.8 W m −1 K −1 as the length scale is diminished from 10 μm to 10 nm. The k value of ZnTe is also observed to decrease from 12.6 W m −1 K −1 to 1.2 W m −1 K −1 for the same decrease in length. We also measured the k of bulk ZnSe and ZnTe using the Frequency Domain Thermoreflectance (FDTR) technique and observed a good agreement between the FDTR measurements and first principles calculations for bulk ZnSe and ZnTe. Understanding the thermal conductivity reduction at the nanometer length scale provides an avenue to incorporate nanostructured ZnSe and ZnTe for thermoelectric applications. 
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