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Satellites have provided high-resolution ( < 100 m) water color (i.e., remote sensing reflectance) and thermal emission imagery of aquatic environments since the early 1980s; however, global operational water quality products based on these data are not readily available (e.g., temperature, chlorophyll- a , turbidity, and suspended particle matter). Currently, because of the postprocessing required, only users with expressive experience can exploit these data, limiting their utility. Here, we provide paths (recipes) for the nonspecialist to access and derive water quality products, along with examples of applications, from sensors on board Landsat-5, Landsat-7, Landsat-8, Landsat-9, Sentinel-2A, and Sentinel-2B. We emphasize that the only assured metric for success in product derivation and the assigning of uncertainties to them is via validation with in situ data. We hope that this contribution will motivate nonspecialists to use publicly available high-resolution satellite data to study new processes and monitor a variety of novel environments that have received little attention to date.more » « less
Aquaculture of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica , is an expanding industry in the US, particularly in the Gulf of Maine. High resolution ocean color satellites launched in the last decade potentially provide aquaculture-relevant water-quality parameters at farm scales. However, these parameters, such as temperature, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and Chlorophyll a (Chl a), need to be derived by interested users. Water quality parameters are derived first by applying an atmospheric correction and then estimating the target parameter with a specific algorithm. Here, we use five atmospheric correction schemes and two algorithms to derive SPM and Chl a from the Sentinel 2A&B satellites’ multispectral instrument data. The best estimates of SPM and Chl a are determined by comparison with in situ observations from buoys. Together with SST from Landsat-8, we estimated an Oyster Suitability Index (OSI) along the transects in five estuaries in the Gulf of Maine as well as applied a novel particulate organic matter algorithm, a function of Chl a and SPM in low turbidity estuaries. We then apply the optimal approaches to derive water quality parameters to study five different estuaries in Maine and find that existing high-yield oyster aquaculture farms are found in areas with elevated OSI values. Additionally, we suggest new areas, currently under-exploited, where oyster aquaculture is likely to succeed, showcasing the utility of the approach.more » « less
Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) offer insight into the evolutionary histories and hosts of contemporary viruses. This study leveraged DNA metagenomics and genomics to detect and infer the host of a non-retroviral dinoflagellate-infecting +ssRNA virus (dinoRNAV) common in coral reefs. As part of the Tara Pacific Expedition, this study surveyed 269 newly sequenced cnidarians and their resident symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodiniaceae), associated metabarcodes, and publicly available metagenomes, revealing 178 dinoRNAV EVEs, predominantly among hydrocoral-dinoflagellate metagenomes. Putative associations between Symbiodiniaceae and dinoRNAV EVEs were corroborated by the characterization of dinoRNAV-like sequences in 17 of 18 scaffold-scale and one chromosome-scale dinoflagellate genome assembly, flanked by characteristically cellular sequences and in proximity to retroelements, suggesting potential mechanisms of integration. EVEs were not detected in dinoflagellate-free (aposymbiotic) cnidarian genome assemblies, including stony corals, hydrocorals, jellyfish, or seawater. The pervasive nature of dinoRNAV EVEs within dinoflagellate genomes (especially
Symbiodinium), as well as their inconsistent within-genome distribution and fragmented nature, suggest ancestral or recurrent integration of this virus with variable conservation. Broadly, these findings illustrate how +ssRNA viruses may obscure their genomes as members of nested symbioses, with implications for host evolution, exaptation, and immunity in the context of reef health and disease.
Abstract Sea spray aerosol (SSA) formation have a major role in the climate system, but measurements at a global-scale of this micro-scale process are highly challenging. We measured high-resolution temporal patterns of SSA number concentration over the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and the Pacific Ocean covering over 42,000 km. We discovered a ubiquitous 24-hour rhythm to the SSA number concentration, with concentrations increasing after sunrise, remaining higher during the day, and returning to predawn values after sunset. The presence of dominating continental aerosol transport can mask the SSA cycle. We did not find significant links between the diel cycle of SSA number concentration and diel variations of surface winds, atmospheric physical properties, radiation, pollution, nor oceanic physical properties. However, the daily mean sea surface temperature positively correlated with the magnitude of the day-to-nighttime increase in SSA concentration. Parallel diel patterns in particle sizes were also detected in near-surface waters attributed to variations in the size of particles smaller than ~1 µm. These variations may point to microbial day-to-night modulation of bubble-bursting dynamics as a possible cause of the SSA cycle.more » « less