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The communication class UPP cc is a communication analog of the Turing Machine complexity class PP . It is characterized by a matrixanalytic complexity measure called signrank (also called dimension complexity), and is essentially the most powerful communication class against which we know how to prove lower bounds. For a communication problem f , let f ∧ f denote the function that evaluates f on two disjoint inputs and outputs the AND of the results. We exhibit a communication problem f with UPP cc ( f ) = O (log n ), and UPP cc ( f ∧ f ) = Θ (log 2 n ). This is the first result showing that UPP communication complexity can increase by more than a constant factor under intersection. We view this as a first step toward showing that UPP cc , the class of problems with polylogarithmiccost UPP communication protocols, is not closed under intersection. Our result shows that the function class consisting of intersections of two majorities on n bits has dimension complexity n Omega Ω(log n ) . This matches an upper bound of (Klivans, O’Donnell, and Servedio, FOCS 2002), who used it to give a quasipolynomial time algorithm formore »

We give new quantum algorithms for evaluating composed functions whose inputs may be shared between bottomlevel gates. Let f be an m bit Boolean function and consider an n bit function F obtained by applying f to conjunctions of possibly overlapping subsets of n variables. If f has quantum query complexity Q ( f ) , we give an algorithm for evaluating F using O ~ ( Q ( f ) ⋅ n ) quantum queries. This improves on the bound of O ( Q ( f ) ⋅ n ) that follows by treating each conjunction independently, and our bound is tight for worstcase choices of f . Using completely different techniques, we prove a similar tight composition theorem for the approximate degree of f .By recursively applying our composition theorems, we obtain a nearly optimal O ~ ( n 1 − 2 − d ) upper bound on the quantum query complexity and approximate degree of linearsize depth d AC 0 circuits. As a consequence, such circuits can be PAC learned in subexponential time, even in the challenging agnostic setting. Prior to our work, a subexponentialtime algorithm was not known even for linearsize depth3 AC 0 circuits.As anmore »