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    It has long been speculated that jet feedback from accretion on to the companion during a common envelope (CE) event could affect the orbital evolution and envelope unbinding process. We present global 3D hydrodynamical simulations of CE evolution (CEE) that include a jet subgrid model and compare them with an otherwise identical model without a jet. Our binary consists of a 2-M⊙ red giant branch primary and a 1- or 0.5-M⊙ main sequence (MS) or white dwarf (WD) secondary companion modelled as a point particle. We run the simulations for 10 orbits (40 d). Our jet model adds mass at a constant rate $\dot{M}_\mathrm{j}$ of the order of the Eddington rate, with maximum velocity vj of the order of the escape speed, to two spherical sectors with the jet axis perpendicular to the orbital plane. We explore the influence of the jet on orbital evolution, envelope morphology and envelope unbinding, and assess the dependence of the results on the jet mass-loss rate, launch speed, companion mass, opening angle, and accretion rate. In line with our theoretical estimates, jets are choked around the time of first periastron passage and remain choked thereafter. Subsequent to choking, but not before, jets efficiently transfer energy to bound envelope material. This leads to increases in unbound mass of up to $\sim 10{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$, as compared to the simulations without jets. We also estimate the cumulative effects of jets over a full CE phase, finding that jets launched by MS and WD companions are unlikely to dominate envelope unbinding.

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  2. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Many stars harbour multiplanet systems. As these stars expand late in their evolutions, the innermost planet may be engulfed, leading to a common envelope (CE) event. Even if this is insufficient to eject the envelope, it may expand the star further, causing additional CE events, with the last one unbinding what remains of the envelope. This multiplanet CE scenario may have broad implications for stellar and planetary evolution across a range of systems. We develop a simplified version and show that it may be able to explain the recently observed planet WD 1856 b. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Galactic dynamo models take as input certain parameters of the interstellar turbulence, most essentially the correlation time τ, root-mean-square turbulent speed u, and correlation scale l. However, these quantities are difficult, or, in the case of τ, impossible, to directly observe, and theorists have mostly relied on order of magnitude estimates. Here we present an analytic model to derive these quantities in terms of a small set of more accessible parameters. In our model, turbulence is assumed to be driven concurrently by isolated supernovae (SNe) and superbubbles (SBs), but clustering of SNe to form SBs can be turned off if desired, which reduces the number of model parameters by about half. In general, we find that isolated SNe and SBs can inject comparable amounts of turbulent energy into the interstellar medium, but SBs do so less efficiently. This results in rather low overall conversion rates of SN energy into turbulent energy of ∼1–3%. The results obtained for l, u and τ for model parameter values representative of the Solar neighbourhood are consistent with those determined from direct numerical simulations. Our analytic model can be combined with existing dynamo models to predict more directly the magnetic field properties for nearby galaxies or for statistical populations of galaxies in cosmological models. 
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  4. ABSTRACT Common envelope (CE) evolution is a critical but still poorly understood progenitor phase of many high-energy astrophysical phenomena. Although 3D global hydrodynamic CE simulations have become more common in recent years, those involving an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) primary are scarce, due to the high computational cost from the larger dynamical range compared to red giant branch (RGB) primaries. But CE evolution with AGB progenitors is desirable to simulate because such events are the likely progenitors of most bi-polar planetary nebulae (PNe), and prominent observational testing grounds for CE physics. Here we present a high-resolution global simulation of CE evolution involving an AGB primary and 1-$\mathrm{M_\odot }$ secondary, evolved for 20 orbital revolutions. During the last 16 of these orbits, the envelope unbinds at an almost constant rate of about 0.1–$0.2\, \mathrm{M_\odot \, yr^{-1}}$. If this rate were maintained, the envelope would be unbound in less than $10\, {\rm yr}$. The dominant source of this unbinding is consistent with inspiral; we assess the influence of the ambient medium to be subdominant. We compare this run with a previous run that used an RGB phase primary evolved from the same 2-$\mathrm{M_\odot }$ main-sequence star to assess the influence of the evolutionary state of the primary. When scaled appropriately, the two runs are quite similar, but with some important differences. 
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  5. ABSTRACT During the common-envelope binary interaction, the expanding layers of the gaseous common envelope recombine and the resulting recombination energy has been suggested as a contributing factor to the ejection of the envelope. In this paper, we perform a comparative study between simulations with and without the inclusion of recombination energy. We use two distinct setups, comprising a 0.88- and 1.8-M⊙ giants, that have been studied before and can serve as benchmarks. In so doing, we conclude that (i) the final orbital separation is not affected by the choice of equation of state (EoS). In other words, simulations that unbind but a small fraction of the envelope result in similar final separations to those that, thanks to recombination energy, unbind a far larger fraction. (ii) The adoption of a tabulated EoS results in a much greater fraction of unbound envelope and we demonstrate the cause of this to be the release of recombination energy. (iii) The fraction of hydrogen recombination energy that is allowed to do work should be about half of that which our adiabatic simulations use. (iv) However, for the heavier star simulation, we conclude that it is helium and not hydrogen recombination energy that unbinds the gas and we determine that all helium recombination energy is thermalized in the envelope and does work. (v) The outer regions of the expanding common envelope are likely to see the formation of dust. This dust would promote additional unbinding and shaping of the ejected envelope into axisymmetric morphologies. 
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  6. Constraining dynamo theories of magnetic field origin by observation is indispensable but challenging, in part because the basic quantities measured by observers and predicted by modelers are different. We clarify these differences and sketch out ways to bridge the divide. Based on archival and previously unpublished data, we then compile various important properties of galactic magnetic fields for nearby spiral galaxies. We consistently compute strengths of total, ordered, and regular fields, pitch angles of ordered and regular fields, and we summarize the present knowledge on azimuthal modes, field parities, and the properties of non-axisymmetric spiral features called magnetic arms. We review related aspects of dynamo theory, with a focus on mean-field models and their predictions for large-scale magnetic fields in galactic discs and halos. Furthermore, we measure the velocity dispersion of H i gas in arm and inter-arm regions in three galaxies, M 51, M 74, and NGC 6946, since spiral modulation of the root-mean-square turbulent speed has been proposed as a driver of non-axisymmetry in large-scale dynamos. We find no evidence for such a modulation and place upper limits on its strength, helping to narrow down the list of mechanisms to explain magnetic arms. Successes and remaining challenges of dynamo models with respect to explaining observations are briefly summarized, and possible strategies are suggested. With new instruments like the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), large data sets of magnetic and non-magnetic properties from thousands of galaxies will become available, to be compared with theory. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT The morphology of bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe) can be attributed to interactions between a fast wind from the central engine and the dense toroidal-shaped ejecta left over from common envelope (CE) evolution. Here we use the 3D hydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code AstroBEAR to study the possibility that bipolar PN outflows can emerge collimated even from an uncollimated spherical wind in the aftermath of a CE event. The output of a single CE simulation via the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code phantom serves as the initial conditions. Four cases of winds, all with high enough momenta to account for observed high momenta pre-PN outflows, are injected spherically from the region of the CE binary remnant into the ejecta. We compare cases with two different momenta and cases with no radiative cooling versus application of optically thin emission via a cooling curve to the outflow. Our simulations show that in all cases highly collimated bipolar outflows result from deflection of the spherical wind via the interaction with the CE ejecta. Significant asymmetries between the top and bottom lobes are seen in all cases. The asymmetry is strongest for the lower momentum case with radiative cooling. While real post-CE winds may be aspherical, our models show that collimation via ‘inertial confinement’ will be strong enough to create jet-like outflows even beginning with maximally uncollimated drivers. Our simulations reveal detailed shock structures in the shock-focused inertial confinement (SFIC) model and develop a lens-shaped inner shock that is a new feature of SFIC-driven bipolar lobes. 
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  8. Abstract We compute the forces, torque and rate of work on the companion-core binary due to drag in global simulations of common envelope (CE) evolution for three different companion masses. Our simulations help to delineate regimes when conventional analytic drag force approximations are applicable. During and just prior to the first periastron passage of the in-spiral phase, the drag force is reasonably approximated by conventional analytic theory and peaks at values proportional to the companion mass. Good agreement between global and local 3D “wind tunnel” simulations, including similar net drag force and flow pattern, is obtained for comparable regions of parameter space. However, subsequent to the first periastron passage, the drag force is up to an order of magnitude smaller than theoretical predictions, quasi-steady, and depends only weakly on companion mass. The discrepancy is exacerbated for larger companion mass and when the inter-particle separation reduces to the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion radius, creating a turbulent thermalized region. Greater flow symmetry during this phase leads to near balance of opposing gravitational forces in front of and behind the companion, hence a small net drag. The reduced drag force at late times helps explain why companion-core separations necessary for envelope ejection are not reached by the end of limited duration CE simulations. 
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