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  1. High-Level Synthesis (HLS) has enabled users to rapidly develop designs targeted for FPGAs from the behavioral description of the design. However, to synthesize an optimal design capable of taking better advantage of the target FPGA, a considerable amount of effort is needed to transform the initial behavioral description into a form that can capture the desired level of parallelism. Thus, a design space exploration (DSE) engine capable of optimizing large complex designs is needed to achieve this goal. We present a new DSE engine capable of considering code transformation, compiler directives (pragmas), and the compatibility of these optimizations. To accomplish this, we initially express the structure of the input code as a graph to guide the exploration process. To appropriately transform the code, we take advantage of ScaleHLS based on the multi-level compiler infrastructure (MLIR). Finally, we identify problems that limit the scalability of existing DSEs, which we name the “design space merging problem.” We address this issue by employing a Random Forest classifier that can successfully decrease the number of invalid design points without invoking the HLS compiler as a validation tool. We evaluated our DSE engine against the ScaleHLS DSE, outperforming it by a maximum of 59×. We additionally demonstrate the scalability of our design by applying our DSE to large-scale HLS designs, achieving a maximum speedup of 12× for the benchmarks in the MachSuite and Rodinia set.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 30, 2024
  2. Dense matrix multiply (MM) serves as one of the most heavily used kernels in deep learning applications. To cope with the high computation demands of these applications, heterogeneous architectures featuring both FPGA and dedicated ASIC accelerators have emerged as promising platforms. For example, the AMD/Xilinx Versal ACAP architecture combines general-purpose CPU cores and programmable logic (PL) with AI Engine processors (AIE) optimized for AI/ML. An array of 400 AI Engine processors executing at 1 GHz can theoretically provide up to 6.4 TFLOPs performance for 32-bit floating-point (fp32) data. However, machine learning models often contain both large and small MM operations. While large MM operations can be parallelized efficiently across many cores, small MM operations typically cannot. In our investigation, we observe that executing some small MM layers from the BERT natural language processing model on a large, monolithic MM accelerator in Versal ACAP achieved less than 5% of the theoretical peak performance. Therefore, one key question arises: How can we design accelerators to fully use the abundant computation resources under limited communication bandwidth for end-to-end applications with multiple MM layers of diverse sizes? We identify the biggest system throughput bottleneck resulting from the mismatch of massive computation resources of one monolithic accelerator and the various MM layers of small sizes in the application. To resolve this problem, we propose the CHARM framework to compose multiple diverse MM accelerator architectures working concurrently towards different layers within one application. CHARM includes analytical models which guide design space exploration to determine accelerator partitions and layer scheduling. To facilitate the system designs, CHARM automatically generates code, enabling thorough onboard design verification. We deploy the CHARM framework for four different deep learning applications, including BERT, ViT, NCF, MLP, on the AMD/Xilinx Versal ACAP VCK190 evaluation board. Our experiments show that we achieve 1.46 TFLOPs, 1.61 TFLOPs, 1.74 TFLOPs, and 2.94 TFLOPs inference throughput for BERT, ViT, NCF, MLP, respectively, which obtain 5.40x, 32.51x, 1.00x and 1.00x throughput gains compared to one monolithic accelerator. 
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  3. This paper presents an enhanced version of a scalable HLS (High-Level Synthesis) framework named ScaleHLS, which can compile HLS C/C++ programs and PyTorch models to highly-efficient and synthesizable C++ designs. The original version of ScaleHLS achieved significant speedup on both C/C++ kernels and PyTorch models [14]. In this paper, we first highlight the key features of ScaleHLS on tackling the challenges present in the representation, optimization, and exploration of large-scale HLS designs. To further improve the scalability of ScaleHLS, we then propose an enhanced HLS transform and analysis library supported in both C++ and Python, and a new design space exploration algorithm to handle HLS designs with hierarchical structures more effectively. Comparing to the original ScaleHLS, our enhanced version improves the speedup by up to 60.9× on FPGAs. ScaleHLS is fully open-sourced at 
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    Abstract Background Modern Next Generation- and Third Generation- Sequencing methods such as Illumina and PacBio Circular Consensus Sequencing platforms provide accurate sequencing data. Parallel developments in Deep Learning have enabled the application of Deep Neural Networks to variant calling, surpassing the accuracy of classical approaches in many settings. DeepVariant, arguably the most popular among such methods, transforms the problem of variant calling into one of image recognition where a Deep Neural Network analyzes sequencing data that is formatted as images, achieving high accuracy. In this paper, we explore an alternative approach to designing Deep Neural Networks for variant calling, where we use meticulously designed Deep Neural Network architectures and customized variant inference functions that account for the underlying nature of sequencing data instead of converting the problem to one of image recognition. Results Results from 27 whole-genome variant calling experiments spanning Illumina, PacBio and hybrid Illumina-PacBio settings suggest that our method allows vastly smaller Deep Neural Networks to outperform the Inception-v3 architecture used in DeepVariant for indel and substitution-type variant calls. For example, our method reduces the number of indel call errors by up to 18%, 55% and 65% for Illumina, PacBio and hybrid Illumina-PacBio variant calling respectively, compared to a similarly trained DeepVariant pipeline. In these cases, our models are between 7 and 14 times smaller. Conclusions We believe that the improved accuracy and problem-specific customization of our models will enable more accurate pipelines and further method development in the field. HELLO is available at 
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