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  1. Abstract

    Effective solutions to conserve biodiversity require accurate community‐ and species‐level information at relevant, actionable scales and across entire species' distributions. However, data and methodological constraints have limited our ability to provide such information in robust ways. Herein we employ a Deep‐Reasoning Network implementation of the Deep Multivariate Probit Model (DMVP‐DRNets), an end‐to‐end deep neural network framework, to exploit large observational and environmental data sets together and estimate landscape‐scale species diversity and composition at continental extents. We present results from a novel year‐round analysis of North American avifauna using data from over nine million eBird checklists and 72 environmental covariates. We highlight the utility of our information by identifying critical areas of high species diversity for a single group of conservation concern, the North American wood warblers, while capturing spatiotemporal variation in species' environmental associations and interspecific interactions. In so doing, we demonstrate the type of accurate, high‐resolution information on biodiversity that deep learning approaches such as DMVP‐DRNets can provide and that is needed to inform ecological research and conservation decision‐making at multiple scales.

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  2. Abstract

    Emergent color centers with accessible spins hosted by van der Waals materials have attracted substantial interest in recent years due to their significant potential for implementing transformative quantum sensing technologies. Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is naturally relevant in this context due to its remarkable ease of integration into devices consisting of low-dimensional materials. Taking advantage of boron vacancy spin defects in hBN, we report nanoscale quantum imaging of low-dimensional ferromagnetism sustained in Fe3GeTe2/hBN van der Waals heterostructures. Exploiting spin relaxometry methods, we have further observed spatially varying magnetic fluctuations in the exfoliated Fe3GeTe2flake, whose magnitude reaches a peak value around the Curie temperature. Our results demonstrate the capability of spin defects in hBN of investigating local magnetic properties of layered materials in an accessible and precise way, which can be extended readily to a broad range of miniaturized van der Waals heterostructure systems.

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  3. Abstract Daily and subdaily precipitation extremes in historical phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) simulations are evaluated against satellite-based observational estimates. Extremes are defined as the precipitation amount exceeded every x years, ranging from 0.01 to 10, encompassing the rarest events that are detectable in the observational record without noisy results. With increasing temporal resolution there is an increased discrepancy between models and observations: for daily extremes, the multimodel median underestimates the highest percentiles by about a third, and for 3-hourly extremes by about 75% in the tropics. The novelty of the current study is that, to understand the model spread, we evaluate the 3D structure of the atmosphere when extremes occur. In midlatitudes, where extremes are simulated predominantly explicitly, the intuitive relationship exists whereby higher-resolution models produce larger extremes ( r = −0.49), via greater vertical velocity. In the tropics, the convective fraction (the fraction of precipitation simulated directly from the convective scheme) is more relevant. For models below 60% convective fraction, precipitation amount decreases with convective fraction ( r = −0.63), but above 75% convective fraction, this relationship breaks down. In the lower-convective-fraction models, there is more moisture in the lower troposphere, closer to saturation. In the higher-convective-fraction models, there is deeper convection and higher cloud tops, which appears to be more physical. Thus, the low-convective models are mostly closer to the observations of extreme precipitation in the tropics, but likely for the wrong reasons. These intermodel differences in the environment in which extremes are simulated hold clues into how parameterizations could be modified in general circulation models to produce more credible twenty-first-century projections. 
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    A key problem in computational sustainability is to understand the distribution of species across landscapes over time. This question gives rise to challenging large-scale prediction problems since (i) hundreds of species have to be simultaneously modeled and (ii) the survey data are usually inflated with zeros due to the absence of species for a large number of sites. The problem of tackling both issues simultaneously, which we refer to as the zero-inflated multi-target regression problem, has not been addressed by previous methods in statistics and machine learning. In this paper, we propose a novel deep model for the zero-inflated multi-target regression problem. To this end, we first model the joint distribution of multiple response variables as a multivariate probit model and then couple the positive outcomes with a multivariate log-normal distribution. By penalizing the difference between the two distributions’ covariance matrices, a link between both distributions is established. The whole model is cast as an end-to-end learning framework and we provide an efficient learning algorithm for our model that can be fully implemented on GPUs. We show that our model outperforms the existing state-of-the-art baselines on two challenging real-world species distribution datasets concerning bird and fish populations.

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