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  1. Superhigh-temperature strengths are achieved in an alloy by eutectic-carbide reinforcement and multiprincipal-element mixing. 
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  2. Abstract

    Intermetallic compounds formed from non-precious transition metals are promising cost-effective and robust catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen production. However, the development of monolithic nanoporous intermetallics, with ample active sites and sufficient electrocatalytic activity, remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of nanoporous Co7Mo6and Fe7Mo6intermetallic compounds via liquid metal dealloying. Along with the development of three-dimensional bicontinuous open porosity, high-temperature dealloying overcomes the kinetic energy barrier, enabling the direct formation of chemically ordered intermetallic phases. Unprecedented small characteristic lengths are observed for the nanoporous intermetallic compounds, resulting from an intermetallic effect whereby the chemical ordering during nanopore formation lowers surface diffusivity and significantly suppresses the thermal coarsening of dealloyed nanostructure. The resulting ultrafine nanoporous Co7Mo6exhibits high catalytic activity and durability in electrochemical hydrogen evolution reactions. This study sheds light on the previously unexplored intermetallic effect in dealloying and facilitates the development of advanced intermetallic catalysts for energy applications.

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  3. Mechanical properties are fundamental to structural materials, where dislocations play a decisive role in describing their mechanical behavior. Although the high-yield stresses of multiprincipal element alloys (MPEAs) have received extensive attention in the last decade, the relation between their mechanistic origins remains elusive. Our multiscale study of density functional theory, atomistic simulations, and high-resolution microscopy shows that the excellent mechanical properties of MPEAs have diverse origins. The strengthening effects through Shockley partials and stacking faults can be decoupled in MPEAs, breaking the conventional wisdom that low stacking fault energies are coupled with wide partial dislocations. This study clarifies the mechanistic origins for the strengthening effects, laying the foundation for physics-informed predictive models for materials design. 
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  4. Abstract

    Non-conservative dislocation climb plays a unique role in the plastic deformation and creep of crystalline materials. Nevertheless, the underlying atomic-scale mechanisms of dislocation climb have not been explored by direct experimental observations. Here, we report atomic-scale observations of grain boundary (GB) dislocation climb in nanostructured Au during in situ straining at room temperature. The climb of a edge dislocation is found to occur by stress-induced reconstruction of two neighboring atomic columns at the edge of an extra half atomic plane in the dislocation core. This is different from the conventional belief of dislocation climb by destruction or construction of a single atomic column at the dislocation core. The atomic route of the dislocation climb we proposed is demonstrated to be energetically favorable by Monte Carlo simulations. Our in situ observations also reveal GB evolution through dislocation climb at room temperature, which suggests a means of controlling microstructures and properties of nanostructured metals.

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  5. Abstract Glass transition is one of the unresolved critical issues in solid-state physics and materials science, during which a viscous liquid is frozen into a solid or structurally arrested state. On account of the uniform arrested mechanism, the calorimetric glass transition temperature ( T g ) always follows the same trend as the dynamical glass transition (or α -relaxation) temperature ( T α ) determined by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Here, we explored the correlations between the calorimetric and dynamical glass transitions of three prototypical high-entropy metallic glasses (HEMGs) systems. We found that the HEMGs present a depressed dynamical glass transition phenomenon, i.e ., HEMGs with moderate calorimetric T g represent the highest T α and the maximum activation energy of α -relaxation. These decoupled glass transitions from thermal and mechanical measurements reveal the effect of high configurational entropy on the structure and dynamics of supercooled liquids and metallic glasses, which are associated with sluggish diffusion and decreased dynamic and spatial heterogeneities from high mixing entropy. The results have important implications in understanding the entropy effect on the structure and properties of metallic glasses for designing new materials with plenteous physical and mechanical performances. 
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  7. Abstract

    Two‐dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is one of the most promising candidates to host solid‐state single photon emitters (SPEs) for various quantum technologies. However, the 2D nature with an atomic‐scale thickness leads to inevitable challenges in spectral variability caused by substrate disturbance, lattice strain heterogeneity, and defect variation. Here, three‐dimensional (3D) nanoarchitectured hBN is reported with integrated SPEs from native defects generated during high‐temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The 3D hBN has a quasi‐periodic gyroid minimal surface structure and is composed of a continuous 2D hBN sheet with built‐in convex and concave curvatures that promote the formation of optically active and thermally robust native defects. The free‐standing feature of the gyroid hBN with a nearly zero mean curvature can effectively eliminate the substrate disturbance and minimize lattice strain heterogeneity. As a result, naturally occurring defects with a narrow SPE spectral distribution can be created and activated as color centers in the 3D hBN, and the density of the SPEs can be tailored by CVD temperature.

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  8. Abstract

    Constructing bulk graphene materials with well‐reserved 2D properties is essential for device and engineering applications of atomically thick graphene. In this article, the recent progress in the fabrications and applications of sterically continuous porous graphene with designable microstructures, chemistries, and properties for energy storage and conversion are reviewed. Both template‐based and template‐free methods have been developed to synthesize the 3D continuously porous graphene, which typically has the microstructure reminiscent of pseudo‐periodic minimal surfaces. The 3D graphene can well preserve the properties of 2D graphene of being highly conductive, surface abundant, and mechanically robust, together with unique 2D electronic behaviors. Additionally, the bicontinuous porosity and large curvature offer new functionalities, such as rapid mass transport, ample open space, mechanical flexibility, and tunable electric/thermal conductivity. Particularly, the 3D curvature provides a new degree of freedom for tailoring the catalysis and transport properties of graphene. The 3D graphene with those extraordinary properties has shown great promises for a wide range of applications, especially for energy conversion and storage. This article overviews the recent advances made in addressing the challenges of developing 3D continuously porous graphene, the benefits and opportunities of the new materials for energy‐related applications, and the remaining challenges that warrant future study.

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