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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 9, 2024

    Long-period comets are planetesimal remnants constraining the environment and volatiles of the protoplanetary disc. We report the discovery of hyperbolic long-period comet C/2022 E3 Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), which has a perihelion ∼1.11 au, an eccentricity ≳1 and an inclination ∼109°, from images taken with the Palomar 48-inch telescope during morning twilight on 2022 March 2. Additionally, we report the characterization of C/2022 E3 (ZTF) from observations taken with the Palomar 200-inch, the Palomar 60-inch, and the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility in early 2023 February to 2023 March when the comet passed within ∼0.28 au of the Earth and reached a visible magnitude of ∼5. We measure g–r = 0.70 ± 0.01, r–i = 0.20 ± 0.01, i–z = 0.06 ± 0.01, z–J = 0.90 ± 0.01, J–H = 0.38 ± 0.01, and H–K = 0.15 ± 0.01 colours for the comet from observations. We measure the A(0°)fρ (0.8 μm) in a 6500 km radius from the nucleus of 1483 ± 40 cm, and CN, C3, and C2 production of 5.43 ± 0.11 × 1025, 2.01 ± 0.04 × 1024, and 3.08 ± 0.5 × 1025 mol s−1, similar to other long-period comets. We additionally observe the appearance of jet-like structures at a scale of ∼4000 km in wide-field g-band images, which may be caused by the presence of CN gas in the near-nucleus coma.

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  3. Lischka, A. E. ; Dyer, E. B. ; Jones, R. S. ; Lovett, J. ; Strayer, J. ; & Drown, S. (Ed.)
    Students exhibiting mature number sense make sense of numbers and operations, use reasoning to notice patterns, and flexibly select the most effective and efficient problem-solving strategies (McIntosh et al., 1997; Reys et al., 1999; Yang, 2005). Despite being highlighted in national standards and policy documents (CCSS, 2010; NCTM, 2000, 2014), students’ mature number sense and its nomological network are not yet well specified. For example, how does students’ mature number sense relate to their knowledge of fractions and their grade-level mathematics achievement? We analyzed 129 middle school students’ scores on measures of mature number sense, fraction and decimal computation, and grade-level mathematics achievement. We found mature number sense to be measurably distinct from their fraction and decimal knowledge and uniquely associated with students’ grade-level mathematics achievement. 
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