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  1. Abstract This paper presents a system-level efficiency analysis, a rapid design methodology, and a numerical demonstration of efficient sub-micron, spin-wave transducers in a microwave system. Applications such as Boolean spintronics, analog spin-wave-computing, and magnetic microwave circuits are expected to benefit from this analysis and design approach. These applications have the potential to provide a low-power, magnetic paradigm alternative to modern electronic systems, but they have been stymied by a limited understanding of the microwave, system-level design for spin-wave circuits. This paper proposes an end-to-end microwave/spin-wave system model that permits the use of classical microwave network analysis and matching theory towards analyzing and designing efficient transduction systems. This paper further compares magnetostatic-wave transducer theory to electromagnetic simulations and finds close agreement, indicating that the theory, despite simplifying assumptions, is useful for rapid yet accurate transducer design. It further suggests that the theory, when modified to include the exchange interaction, will also be useful to rapidly and accurately design transducers launching magnons at exchange wavelengths. Comparisons are made between microstrip and co-planar waveguide lines, which are expedient, narrowband, and low-efficiency transducers, and grating and meander lines that are capable of high-efficiency and wideband performance. The paper concludes that efficient microwave-to-spin-wave transducers aremore »possible and presents a meander transducer design on YIG capable of launching $$\varvec{\lambda = 500}\,$$ λ = 500 nm spin waves with an efficiency of − 4.45 dB and a 3 dB-bandwidth of 134 MHz.« less
  2. Abstract

    We experimentally demonstrate the operation of a Rowland-type concave grating for spin waves, with potential application as a microwave spectrometer. In this device geometry, spin waves are coherently excited on a diffraction grating and form an interference pattern that focuses spin waves to a point corresponding to their frequency. The diffraction grating was created by focused-ion-beam irradiation, which was found to locally eliminate the ferrimagnetic properties of YIG, without removing the material. We found that in our experiments spin waves were created by an indirect excitation mechanism, by exploiting nonlinear resonance between the grating and the coplanar waveguide. Although our demonstration does not include separation of multiple frequency components, since this is not possible if the nonlinear excitation mechanism is used, we believe that using linear excitation the same device geometry could be used as a spectrometer. Our work paves the way for complex spin-wave optic devices—chips that replicate the functionality of integrated optical devices on a chip-scale.

  3. Topological surface states (TSSs) in a topological insulator are expected to be able to produce a spin-orbit torque that can switch a neighboring ferromagnet. This effect may be absent if the ferromagnet is conductive because it can completely suppress the TSSs, but it should be present if the ferromagnet is insulating. This study reports TSS-induced switching in a bilayer consisting of a topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3 and an insulating ferromagnet BaFe 12 O 19 . A charge current in Bi 2 Se 3 can switch the magnetization in BaFe 12 O 19 up and down. When the magnetization is switched by a field, a current in Bi 2 Se 3 can reduce the switching field by ~4000 Oe. The switching efficiency at 3 K is 300 times higher than at room temperature; it is ~30 times higher than in Pt/BaFe 12 O 19 . These strong effects originate from the presence of more pronounced TSSs at low temperatures due to enhanced surface conductivity and reduced bulk conductivity.