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  1. Abstract

    We test the merger-induced dual active galactic nuclei (dAGNs) paradigm using a sample of 35 radio galaxy pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 field. Using Keck optical spectroscopy, we confirm 21 pairs have consistent redshifts, constituting kinematic pairs; the remaining 14 pairs are line-of-sight projections. We classify the optical spectral signatures via emission line ratios, equivalent widths, and excess of radio power above star formation predicted outputs. We find six galaxies are classified as LINERs and seven are AGN/starburst composites. Most of the LINERs are retired galaxies, while the composites likely have AGN contribution. All of the kinematic pairs exhibit radio power more than 10× above the level expected from just star formation, suggestive of a radio AGN contribution. We also analyze high-resolution (0.″3) imaging at 6 GHz from the NSF’s Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array for 17 of the kinematic pairs. We find six pairs (two new, four previously known) host two separate radio cores, confirming their status as dAGNs. The remaining 11 pairs contain single AGNs, with most exhibiting prominent jets/lobes overlapping their companion. Our final census indicates a dAGN duty cycle slightly higher than predictions of purely stochastic fueling, although a largermore »sample (potentially culled from VLASS) is needed to fully address the dAGN fraction. We conclude that while dAGNs in the Stripe 82 field are rare, the merger process plays some role in their triggering and it facilitates low to moderate levels of accretion.

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  2. Abstract We present a highly complete sample of broad-line (Type 1) QSOs out to z ∼ 3 selected by their mid-infrared colors, a method that is minimally affected by dust reddening. We remove host-galaxy emission from the spectra and fit for excess reddening in the residual QSOs, resulting in a Gaussian distribution of colors for unreddened (blue) QSOs, with a tail extending toward heavily reddened (red) QSOs, defined as having E ( B − V ) > 0.25. This radio-independent selection method enables us to compare red and blue QSO radio properties in both the FIRST (1.4 GHz) and VLASS (2–4 GHz) surveys. Consistent with recent results from optically selected QSOs from SDSS, we find that red QSOs have a significantly higher detection fraction and a higher fraction of compact radio morphologies at both frequencies. We employ radio stacking to investigate the median radio properties of the QSOs including those that are undetected in FIRST and VLASS, finding that red QSOs have significantly brighter radio emission and steeper radio spectral slopes compared with blue QSOs. Finally, we find that the incidence of red QSOs is strongly luminosity dependent, where red QSOs make up >40% of all QSOs at the highestmore »luminosities. Overall, red QSOs comprise ∼40% of higher luminosity QSOs, dropping to only a few percent at lower luminosities. Furthermore, red QSOs make up a larger percentage of the radio-detected QSO population. We argue that dusty AGN-driven winds are responsible for both the obscuration as well as excess radio emission seen in red QSOs.« less
  3. Abstract

    The accretion disks of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are promising locations for the merger of compact objects detected by gravitational wave (GW) observatories. Embedded within a baryon-rich, high-density environment, mergers within AGNs are the only GW channel where an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart must occur (whether detectable or not). Considering AGNs with unusual flaring activity observed by the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), we describe a search for candidate EM counterparts to binary black hole (BBH) mergers detected by LIGO/Virgo in O3. After removing probable false positives, we find nine candidate counterparts to BBH mergers during O3 (seven in O3a, two in O3b) with ap-value of 0.0019. Based on ZTF sky coverage, AGN geometry, and merger geometry, we expect ≈3(NBBH/83)(fAGN/0.5) potentially detectable EM counterparts from O3, whereNBBHis the total number of observed BBH mergers andfAGNis the fraction originating in AGNs. Further modeling of breakout and flaring phenomena in AGN disks is required to reduce our false-positive rate. Two of the events are also associated with mergers with total masses >100M, which is the expected rate for O3 if hierarchical (large-mass) mergers occur in the AGN channel. Candidate EM counterparts in future GW observing runs can be better constrained by coverage ofmore »the Southern sky as well as spectral monitoring of unusual AGN flaring events in LIGO/Virgo alert volumes. A future set of reliable AGN EM counterparts to BBH mergers will yield an independent means of measuring cosmic expansion (H0) as a function of redshift.

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  4. ABSTRACT We present a Bayesian method to identify multiple (chemodynamic) stellar populations in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) using velocity, metallicity, and positional stellar data without the assumption of spherical symmetry. We apply this method to a new Keck/Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) spectroscopic survey of the Ursa Minor (UMi) dSph. We identify 892 likely members, making this the largest UMi sample with line-of-sight velocity and metallicity measurements. Our Bayesian method detects two distinct chemodynamic populations with high significance (in logarithmic Bayes factor, ln B ∼ 33). The metal-rich ([Fe/H] = −2.05 ± 0.03) population is kinematically colder (radial velocity dispersion of $\sigma _v=4.9_{-1.0}^{+0.8} \, \mathrm{km} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1}$) and more centrally concentrated than the metal-poor ($[{\rm Fe/H}]=-2.29_{-0.06}^{+0.05}$) and kinematically hotter population ($\sigma _v =11.5_{-0.8}^{+0.9}\, \mathrm{km} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1}$). Furthermore, we apply the same analysis to an independent Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT)/Hectochelle data set and confirm the existence of two chemodynamic populations in UMi. In both data sets, the metal-rich population is significantly flattened (ϵ = 0.75 ± 0.03) and the metal-poor population is closer to spherical ($\epsilon =0.33_{-0.09}^{+0.12}$). Despite the presence of two populations, we are able to robustly estimate the slope of the dynamical mass profile. We found hints for prolate rotation of order ${\sim}2 \, \mathrm{km} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1}$more »in the MMT data set, but further observations are required to verify this. The flattened metal-rich population invalidates assumptions built into simple dynamical mass estimators, so we computed new astrophysical dark matter annihilation (J) and decay profiles based on the rounder, hotter metal-poor population and inferred $\log _{10}{(J(0{^{\circ}_{.}}5)/{\rm GeV^{2} \, cm^{-5}})}\approx 19.1$ for the Keck data set. Our results paint a more complex picture of the evolution of UMi than previously discussed.« less
  5. Abstract We present the results of a systematic search for quasars in the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey exhibiting both strong photometric and spectroscopic variability over a decadal baseline. We identify 111 sources with specific patterns of optical and mid-IR photometric behavior and a defined spectroscopic change. These “Changing-State” quasars (CSQs) form a higher luminosity sample to complement existing sets of “Changing-Look” AGN and quasars in the literature. The CSQs (by selection) exhibit larger photometric variability than the CLQs. The spectroscopic variability is marginally stronger in the CSQs than CLQs as defined by the change in Hβ/[O iii] ratio. We find 48 sources with declining Hβ flux, 63 sources with increasing Hβ flux and discover eight sources with z > 0.8, further extending the redshift arm. Our CSQ sample compares to the literature CLQ objects in similar distributions of Hβ flux ratios and differential Eddington ratios between high (bright) and low (dim) states. Taken as a whole, we find that this population of extreme varying quasars is associated with changes in the Eddington ratio and the timescales imply cooling/heating fronts propagating through the disk.
  6. Intense, millisecond-duration bursts of radio waves (named fast radio bursts) have been detected from beyond the Milky Way. Their dispersion measures—which are greater than would be expected if they had propagated only through the interstellar medium of the Milky Way—indicate extragalactic origins, and imply contributions from the intergalactic medium and perhaps from other galaxies. Although several theories exist regarding the sources of these fast radio bursts, their intensities, durations and temporal structures suggest coherent emission from highly magnetized plasma. Two of these bursts have been observed to repeat, and one repeater (FRB 121102) has been localized to the largest star-forming region of a dwarf galaxy at a cosmological redshift of 0.19. However, the host galaxies and distances of the hitherto non-repeating fast radio bursts are yet to be identified. Unlike repeating sources, these events must be observed with an interferometer that has sufficient spatial resolution for arcsecond localization at the time of discovery. Here we report the localization of a fast radio burst (FRB 190523) to a few-arcsecond region containing a single massive galaxy at a redshift of 0.66. This galaxy is different from the host of FRB 121102, as it is a thousand times more massive, with a specificmore »star-formation rate (the star-formation rate divided by the mass) a hundred times smaller.« less