skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Du, Wenchao"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract This paper reports a study on the effects of particle size distribution (tuned by mixing different-sized powders) on density of a densely packed powder, powder bed density, and sintered density in binder jetting additive manufacturing. An analytical model was used first to study the mixture packing density. Analytical results showed that multimodal (bimodal or trimodal) mixtures could achieve a higher packing density than their component powders and there existed an optimal mixing fraction to achieve the maximum mixture packing density. Both a lower component particle size ratio (fine to coarse) and a larger component packing density ratio (fine to coarse) led to a larger maximum mixture packing density. A threshold existed for the component packing density ratio, below which the mixing method was not effective for density improvement. Its relationship to the component particle size ratio was calculated and plotted. In addition, the dependence of the optimal mixing fraction and maximum mixture packing density on the component particle size ratio and component packing density ratio was calculated and plotted. These plots can be used as theoretical tools to select parameters for the mixing method. Experimental results of tap density were consistent with the above-mentioned analytical predictions. Also, experimental measurementsmore »showed that powders with multimodal particle size distributions achieved a higher tap density, powder bed density, and sintered density in most cases.« less
  2. Abstract Feedstock powders used in binder jetting additive manufacturing include nanopowder, micropowder, and granulated powder. Two important characteristics of the feedstock powders are flowability and sinterability. This paper aims to compare the flowability and sinterability of different feedstock powders. Three powders were compared: nanopowder (with a particle size of ∼100 nm), micropowder (with a particle size of 70 μm), and granulated powder (with a granule size of ∼70 μm) made from the nanopowder by spray freeze drying. Flowability metrics employed included apparent density (AD), tap density (TD), volumetric flow rate (VFR), mass flow rate (MFR), Hausner ratio (HR), Carr index (CI), and repose angle (RA). Sinterability metrics employed included sintered bulk density (SBD), volumetric shrinkage (VS), and densification ratio (DR). Results show that the granulated powder has a higher flowability than the nanopowder and a higher sinterability than the micropowder. Moreover, different flowability metric values of the granulated powder are close to those of the micropowder, indicating that these two powers have a comparably high flowability. Similarly, different sinterability metric values of the granulated powder are close to those of the nanopowder, indicating that these two powders have a comparably high sinterability.
  3. Abstract Binder jetting is an additive manufacturing process utilizing a liquid-based binding agent to selectively join the material in a powder bed. It is capable of manufacturing complex-shaped parts from a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, and polymers. This paper provides a comprehensive review on currently available reports on metal binder jetting from both academia and industry. Critical factors and their effects in metal binder jetting are reviewed and divided into two categories, namely material-related factors and process-related parameters. The reported data on density, dimensional and geometric accuracy, and mechanical properties achieved by metal binder jetting are summarized. With parameter optimization and a suitable sintering process, ten materials have been proven to achieve a relative density of higher than 90%. Indepth discussion is provided regarding densification as a function of various attributes of powder packing, printing, and post-processing. A few grades of stainless steel obtained equivalent or superior mechanical properties compared to cold working. Although binder jetting has gained its popularity in the past several years, it has not been sufficiently studied compared with other metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes such as powder bed fusion and directed energy deposition. Some aspects that need further research include the understanding ofmore »powder spreading process, binder-powder interaction, and part shrinkage.« less
  4. Abstract The objective of this review paper is to summarize the current status and identify the knowledge gaps in ceramic binder jetting additive manufacturing, with a particular focus on density. This paper begins with an overview of ceramic binder jetting. Then, it discusses different aspects of density, including various terminologies, measurement methods, and achieved values. Afterward, it reviews two categories of techniques to increase the part density: material preparation techniques (powder granulation, mixing powders of different sizes, using slurry feedstock, and mixing different materials) and postprocessing techniques (sintering, chemical reaction, infiltration, and isostatic pressing). Finally, it presents the knowledge gaps in the literature.
  5. Abstract Nanocomposites have been widely used to improve material properties. Nanoscale reinforcement materials in vat photopolymerization resins improve the hardness, tensile strength, impact strength, elongation, and electrical conductivity of the printed products. This paper presents a literature review on the effects of reinforcement materials on nanocomposite properties. Additionally, preprocessing techniques, printing processes, and postprocessing techniques of nanocomposites are discussed. The nanocomposite properties are summarized based on their applications in the mechanical, electrical and magnetic, and biomedical industries. Future research directions are proposed to improve the material properties of printed nanocomposites.
  6. Neural models have become one of the most important approaches to dialog response generation. However, they still tend to generate the most common and generic responses in the corpus all the time. To address this problem, we designed an iterative training process and ensemble method based on boosting. We combined our method with different training and decoding paradigms as the base model, including mutual-information-based decoding and reward-augmented maximum likelihood learning. Empirical results show that our approach can significantly improve the diversity and relevance of the responses generated by all base models, backed by objective measurements and human evaluation.