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  1. Parallel tempering (PT), also known as replica exchange, is the go-to workhorse for simulations of multi-modal distributions. The key to the success of PT is to adopt efficient swap schemes. The popular deterministic even-odd (DEO) scheme exploits the non-reversibility property and has successfully reduced the communication cost from O(P 2) to O(P) given sufficient many P chains. However, such an innovation largely disappears in big data problems due to the limited chains and extremely few bias-corrected swaps. To handle this issue, we generalize the DEO scheme to promote the non-reversibility and obtain an appealing communication cost O(P log P) based on the optimal window size. In addition, we also analyze the bias when we adopt stochastic gradient descent (SGD) with large and constant learning rates as exploration kernels. Such a user-friendly nature enables us to conduct large-scale uncertainty approximation tasks without much tuning costs. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 7, 2024
  2. Abstract The discovery of two-dimensional (2D) ferromagnets and antiferromagnets with topologically nontrivial electronic band structures makes the study of the Nernst effect in 2D materials of great importance and interest. To measure the Nernst coefficient of 2D materials, the detection of the temperature gradient is crucial. Although the micro-fabricated metal wires provide a simple but accurate way for temperature detection, a linear-response assumption that the temperature gradient is a constant is still necessary and has been widely used to evaluate the temperature gradient. However, with the existence of substrates, this assumption cannot be precise. In this study, we clearly show that the temperature gradient strongly depends on the distance from the heater by both thermoelectric transport and thermoreflectance measurements. Fortunately, both measurements show that the temperature gradient can be well described by a linear function of the distance from the heater. This linearity is further confirmed by comparing the measured Nernst coefficient to the value calculated from the generalized Mott’s formula. Our results demonstrate a precise way to measure the Nernst coefficient of 2D materials and would be helpful for future studies. 
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  3. We propose an interacting contour stochastic gradient Langevin dynamics (IC-SGLD) sampler, an embarrassingly parallel multiple-chain contour stochastic gradient Langevin dynamics (CSGLD) sampler with efficient interactions. We show that ICSGLD can be theoretically more efficient than a single-chain CSGLD with an equivalent computational budget. We also present a novel random-field function, which facilitates the estimation of self-adapting parameters in big data and obtains free mode explorations. Empirically, we compare the proposed algorithm with popular benchmark methods for posterior sampling. The numerical results show a great potential of ICSGLD for large-scale uncertainty estimation tasks. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
  5. We present a catalog of results of gamma-ray observations made by VERITAS, published from 2008 to 2020. VERITAS is a ground based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope observatory located at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (FLWO) in southern Arizona, sensitive to gamma-ray photons with energies in the range of ∼ 100 GeV - 30 TeV. Its observation targets include galactic sources such as binary star systems, pulsar wind nebulae, and supernova remnants, extragalactic sources like active galactic nuclei, star forming galaxies, and gamma-ray bursts, and some unidentified objects. The catalog includes in digital form all of the high-level science results published in 112 papers using VERITAS data and currently contains data on 57 sources. The catalog has been made accessible via GitHub and at NASA's HEASARC. 
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  6. Hallibert, Pascal ; Hull, Tony B. ; Kim, Daewook ; Keller, Fanny (Ed.)
    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next-generation ground-based observatory for very-high-energy gamma rays. One candidate design for CTA's medium-sized telescopes consists of the Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope (SCT), featuring innovative dual-mirror optics. The SCT project has built and is currently operating a 9.7-m prototype SCT (pSCT) at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (FLWO); such optical design enables the use of a compact camera with state-of-the art silicon photomultiplier detectors. A partially-equipped camera has recently successfully detected the Crab Nebula with a statistical significance of 8.6 standard deviations. A funded upgrade of the pSCT focal plane sensors and electronics is currently ongoing, which will bring the total number of channels from 1600 to 11328 and the telescope field of view from about 2.7° to 8° . In this work, we will describe the technical and scientific performance of the pSCT. 
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  7. Marshall, Heather K. ; Spyromilio, Jason ; Usuda, Tomonori (Ed.)
    The novel 9.7m Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope (SCT), utilizing aspheric dual-mirror optical system, has been constructed as a prototype medium size x-ray telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory. The prototype SCT (pSCT) is designed to achieve simultaneously the wide (≥ 8°) field of view and the superior imaging resolution (0.067 per pixel) to significantly improve scientific capabilities of the observatory in conducting the sky surveys, the follow-up observations of multi-messenger transients with poorly known initial localization and the morphology studies of x-ray sources with angular extent. In this submission, we describe the hardware and software implementations of the telescope optical system as well as the methods specifically developed to align its complex optical system, in which both primary and secondary mirrors are segmented. The pSCT has detected Crab Nebula in June 2020 during ongoing commissioning, which was delayed due to worldwide pandemic and is not yet completed. Verification of pSCT performance is continuing and further improvement of optical alignment is anticipated. 
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