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  1. This paper investigates an adversary's ease of attack in generating adversarial examples for real-world scenarios. We address three key requirements for practical attacks for the real-world: 1) automatically constraining the size and shape of the attack so it can be applied with stickers, 2) transform-robustness, i.e., robustness of a attack to environmental physical variations such as viewpoint and lighting changes, and 3) supporting attacks in not only white-box, but also black-box hard-label scenarios, so that the adversary can attack proprietary models. In this work, we propose GRAPHITE, an efficient and general framework for generating attacks that satisfy the above three key requirements. GRAPHITE takes advantage of transform-robustness, a metric based on expectation over transforms (EoT), to automatically generate small masks and optimize with gradient-free optimization. GRAPHITE is also flexible as it can easily trade-off transform-robustness, perturbation size, and query count in black-box settings. On a GTSRB model in a hard-label black-box setting, we are able to find attacks on all possible 1,806 victim-target class pairs with averages of 77.8% transform-robustness, perturbation size of 16.63% of the victim images, and 126K queries per pair. For digital-only attacks where achieving transform-robustness is not a requirement, GRAPHITE is able to find successful small-patch attacks with an average of only 566 queries for 92.2% of victim-target pairs. GRAPHITE is also able to find successful attacks using perturbations that modify small areas of the input image against PatchGuard, a recently proposed defense against patch-based attacks. 
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  3. Emerging smart home platforms, which interface with a variety of physical devices and support third-party application development, currently use permission models inspired by smartphone operating systems—the permission to access operations are separated by the device which performs them instead of their functionality. Unfortunately, this leads to two issues: (1) apps that do not require access to all of the granted device operations have overprivileged access to them, (2) apps might pose a higher risk to users than needed because physical device operations are fundamentally risk-asymmetric — “door.unlock” provides access to burglars, and “door.lock” can potentially lead to getting locked out. Overprivileged apps with access to mixed-risk operations only increase the potential for damage. We present Tyche, a secure development methodology that leverages the risk-asymmetry in physical device operations to limit the risk that apps pose to smart home users, without increasing the user’s decision overhead. Tyche introduces the notion of risk-based permissions for IoT systems. When using risk-based permissions, device operations are grouped into units of similar risk, and users grant apps access to devices at that risk-based granularity. Starting from a set of permissions derived from the popular Samsung SmartThings platform, we conduct a user study involving domain-experts and Mechanical Turk users to compute a relative ranking of risks associated with device operations. We find that user assessment of risk closely matches that of domain experts. Using this insight, we define risk-based groupings of device operations, and apply it to existing SmartThings apps. We show that existing apps can reduce access to high-risk operations by 60% while remaining operable. 
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  4. Trigger-Action platforms are web-based systems that enable users to create automation rules by stitching together online services representing digital and physical resources using OAuth tokens. Unfortunately, these platforms introduce a longrange large-scale security risk: If they are compromised, an attacker can misuse the OAuth tokens belonging to a large number of users to arbitrarily manipulate their devices and data. We introduce Decentralized Action Integrity, a security principle that prevents an untrusted trigger-action platform from misusing compromised OAuth tokens in ways that are inconsistent with any given user’s set of trigger-action rules. We present the design and evaluation of Decentralized Trigger-Action Platform (DTAP), a trigger-action platform that implements this principle by overcoming practical challenges. DTAP splits currently monolithic platform designs into an untrusted cloud service, and a set of user clients (each user only trusts their client). Our design introduces the concept of Transfer Tokens (XTokens) to practically use finegrained rule-specific tokens without increasing the number of OAuth permission prompts compared to current platforms. Our evaluation indicates that DTAP poses negligible overhead: it adds less than 15ms of latency to rule execution time, and reduces throughput by 2.5%. 
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  5. Deep neural networks (DNNs) are vulnerable to adversarial examples—maliciously crafted inputs that cause DNNs to make incorrect predictions. Recent work has shown that these attacks generalize to the physical domain, to create perturbations on physical objects that fool image classifiers under a variety of real-world conditions. Such attacks pose a risk to deep learning models used in safety-critical cyber-physical systems. In this work, we extend physical attacks to more challenging object detection models, a broader class of deep learning algorithms widely used to detect and label multiple objects within a scene. Improving upon a previous physical attack on image classifiers, we create perturbed physical objects that are either ignored or mislabeled by object detection models. We implement a Disappearance Attack, in which we cause a Stop sign to “disappear” according to the detector—either by covering the sign with an adversarial Stop sign poster, or by adding adversarial stickers onto the sign. In a video recorded in a controlled lab environment, the state-of-the-art YOLO v2 detector failed to recognize these adversarial Stop signs in over 85% of the video frames. In an outdoor experiment, YOLO was fooled by the poster and sticker attacks in 72.5% and 63.5% of the video frames respectively. We also use Faster R-CNN, a different object detection model, to demonstrate the transferability of our adversarial perturbations. The created poster perturbation is able to fool Faster R-CNN in 85.9% of the video frames in a controlled lab environment, and 40.2% of the video frames in an outdoor environment. Finally, we present preliminary results with a new Creation Attack, wherein innocuous physical stickers fool a model into detecting nonexistent objects. 
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  6. Recent studies show that the state-of-the-art deep neural networks (DNNs) are vulnerable to adversarial examples, resulting from small-magnitude perturbations added to the input. Given that that emerging physical systems are using DNNs in safety-critical situations, adversarial examples could mislead these systems and cause dangerous situations. Therefore, understanding adversarial examples in the physical world is an important step towards developing resilient learning algorithms. We propose a general attack algorithm, Robust Physical Perturbations (RP2), to generate robust visual adversarial perturbations under different physical conditions. Using the real-world case of road sign classification, we show that adversarial examples generated using RP2 achieve high targeted misclassification rates against standard-architecture road sign classifiers in the physical world under various environmental conditions, including viewpoints. Due to the current lack of a standardized testing method, we propose a two-stage evaluation methodology for robust physical adversarial examples consisting of lab and field tests. Using this methodology, we evaluate the efficacy of physical adversarial manipulations on real objects. With a perturbation in the form of only black and white stickers, we attack a real stop sign, causing targeted misclassification in 100% of the images obtained in lab settings, and in 84.8% of the captured video frames obtained on a moving vehicle (field test) for the target classifier. 
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  7. Recent studies show that the state-of-the-art deep neural networks (DNNs) are vulnerable to adversarial examples, resulting from small-magnitude perturbations added to the input. Given that that emerging physical systems are using DNNs in safety-critical situations, adversarial examples could mislead these systems and cause dangerous situations. Therefore, understanding adversarial examples in the physical world is an important step towards developing resilient learning algorithms. We propose a general attack algorithm, Robust Physical Perturbations (RP 2 ), to generate robust visual adversarial perturbations under different physical conditions. Using the real-world case of road sign classification, we show that adversarial examples generated using RP 2 achieve high targeted misclassification rates against standard-architecture road sign classifiers in the physical world under various environmental conditions, including viewpoints. Due to the current lack of a standardized testing method, we propose a two-stage evaluation methodology for robust physical adversarial examples consisting of lab and field tests. Using this methodology, we evaluate the efficacy of physical adversarial manipulations on real objects. With a perturbation in the form of only black and white stickers, we attack a real stop sign, causing targeted misclassification in 100% of the images obtained in lab settings, and in 84.8% of the captured video frames obtained on a moving vehicle (field test) for the target classifier. 
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